12-14 unit

A truck used for remote TV news, with a microwave transmitter-receiver, called a dish, mounted on its roof. It transmits at 12 gigahertz and receives at 14 gigahertz. The Ku band is 12 to 14 gigahertz, and these trucks also are called Ku trucks.



4K resolution, also called 4K, refers to a horizontal display resolution of approximately 4,000 pixels. Digital television and digital cinematography commonly use several different 4K resolutions. In television and consumer media, 3840 2160 (4K UHD) is the dominant 4K standard, whereas the movie projection industry uses 4096 2160 (DCI 4K).


Ad hoc network

A group of stations that is formed for a special purpose, such as the showing of a one-time TV program or series. Ad hoc is Latin for "for this."

Ad-hoc Licence

LiveU Central enables non-LiveU equipment running LU-Smart to temporarily communicate through the LiveU infrastructure. In LiveU Central, these devices are called Adhoc devices.

Adaptive resolution

Adaptive Resolution is better known as render scale or internal engine render resolution. Adaptive resolution is a feature designed to load high resolution data efficiently by obtaining and loading only the minimum amount of data needed to display all of the observable features in the given display size and geographic domain.

ADC (Analog-to-digital converter)

A device to convert analog signals to digital.


A station that contractually agrees to carry programs of the network with which it is affiliated. The station may be owned by the network but generally is independently owned.

AGC (automatic gain control)

A circuit for automatically controlling amplifier gain in order to maintain a constant output voltage with a varying input voltage within a predetermined range of input-to-output variation.


In computer science, artificial intelligence (AI), sometimes called machine intelligence, is intelligence demonstrated by machines, in contrast to the natural intelligence displayed by humans and animals. Computer science defines AI research as the study of "intelligent agents": any device that perceives its environment and takes actions that maximize its chance of successfully achieving its goals. Colloquially, the term "artificial intelligence" is used to describe machines that mimic "cognitive" functions that humans associate with other human minds, such as "learning" and "problem solving".


The medium for radio and TV broadcasting. A station or program, when broadcast, is on the air or airing.

Air check

An audio or video transcription or recording, made from an actual broadcast, of a radio or TV commercial or program. Technically, a typed transcript is not an air check, although it sometimes is called that.

Air date

The time of a broadcast.

Air ready

Describing a commercial, program, or other material completed and available for broadcast use.


Suitable for use on a radio or TV station (uncommon slang).


The broadcast of a record or tape. One measurement of a hit recording is the number of airplays it receives.

Airtime or air time

The scheduled day or period of a broadcast, described by the beginning time; the length of an actual broadcast of a program or segment, such as an interview.


The medium through which broadcasting signals are transmitted; their pathways through the air.


Slang for a metal spring-clamp with serrated jaws used to attach lights and other items; also called a gator grip or bear trap. It is used by gaffers (electricians) and called a gaffer grip. The spring-loaded clamp has serrations along the edges and resembles the jaws of an alligator.

AM station

A station that broadcasts with an amplitude-modulated signal. An AM signal is a long, direct radio wave that travels the earth's surface, whereas a frequency-modulated (FM) signal is a straight broadcast signal that travels only as far as the horizon.

AMD (AM drive time)

The morning rush hour slot.


Any form of signal that carries information in the form of variable physical values, such as amplitude or frequency modulation. A signal which moves through a continuous range of settings or levels. An adjective describing any signal that varies continuously as opposed to a digital signal that contains discrete levels representing the binary digits 0 and 1.

Analog Recording

Recording of audio using an electronic signal that varies continuously. The main drawback of analog recording is the introduction of inherent noise to the recorded signal.

Analog transmission

The broadcasting of a signal using an analog recording. Examples of use include radio.


The science of analysis. Arriving at an optimal or realistic decision based on existing data. In the video industry it is often used for analyzing video to detect and determine temporal events not based on single image. It has a wide range of application in safety and security to examine video for specific data, behavior, objects or attitude.


The key narrator of a newscast or other program; also called anchorman or anchorwoman. Two or more individuals sharing these functions are co-anchors. A local anchor works at a local station; a network anchor, at a network. Specialized newscasters include sports anchor, weather anchor, and weekend anchor. A field anchor reports from a studio outside the studio headquarters.

Ancillary (data)

Ancillary data (commonly abbreviated as ANC data), in the context of television systems, refers to a means which by non-video information (such as audio, other forms of essence, and metadata) may be embedded within the serial digital interface.


A "rough" of a TV commercial, resembling an animated cartoon, produced on film or videotape from drawings that show the stages in the storyboard.


The process of creating static figures that appear to move and seem alive, such as cut-outs or puppets filmed a frame at a time, each slightly different in a sequence.


An artist who produces animation drawings, or the person in charge of an animation production.




A printed notice or a message during a broadcast. It may be paid (commercial announcement) or free (public service announcement), perhaps made by a performer (announcer) in an announcer's booth (small studio).


A metallic device for sending or receiving electromagnetic waves, formerly common on rooftops,now built into radio and TV sets for receiving. The origin of the term is the sensory appendages on the heads of insects and other animals.

Antenna farm

The location for the transmitting antennas for most or all of the TV stations in an area; sometimes also a cluster of radio transmitters.

Antenna Module

LiveU field units are provided with communication modules (internal USB modems) already inserted. These modules carries the SIM cards.


The effective diameter of the lens that controls the amount of light reaching the photoconductive or photo emitting image pickup sensor.

Aperture Correction

Compensation for the loss in sharpness of detail because of the finite dimensions of the image elements or the dot-pitch of the monitor.


Access Point Name - the name for the gateway used for SIM cards to connect to the internet.


Approval, commonly expressed by clapping. An applause meter in a broadcast studio measures the sound volume of the applause, and it also can be used to intensify the sound or provide canned applause (the recorded sound of applause for a taped or filmed program). Applause mail is fan mail commending a program or performer. An applause line in a script, such as a speech, indicates a pause in anticipation of applause.

Appointment television

A process in which TV viewers plan to view specific programs, as if they were making appointments on their weekly calendars, a habit that was common in the 1940s among listeners of network radio programs and in the 1950s among audiences of network TV programs.


Advanced Replacment (For RMA) - a replacement unit will be sent in advance for the faulty one.


The company that provides the industry accepted standard for radio audience measurement.


Aspect Ratio Conversion. Changing the original aspect ratio of a HD picture through downconversion to either 16:9 letterbox or 4:3 center cut (see Center Cut). Also general term for converting original 4:3 / 14:9 material into 16:9 by zooming in whilst maintaining the aspect ratio, typically to allow the seamless insertion of archive footage into modern 16:9 productions.


Long term storage of material on an offline storage medium.

Archive copy

is a master copy intended solely for storage and not to be used in distribution.


A curved movement, as in the circular motion of a TV pedestal camera, for which the instructions are arc left and arc right.

Area of Dominant Influence (ADI)

The geographic boundaries of TV markets. The term ADI was coined by Arbitron to indicate the cluster of counties in which TV stations have a greater share of viewing households than those from any other area. A non-ADI market is a county in which the preponderance of TV viewers is not watching the local station or stations. For example, viewers in Akron, OH, are more likely to view Cleveland stations. An ADI rating was the percent of people viewing a specific TV program. Arbitron terminated its TV service at the end of 1993. The A.C. Nielsen Company has a similar concept called Designated Market Area (DMA).


A defect or distortion of the video image, introduced along the sequence from origination and image capture to final display. Artifacts may arise from the overload of channel capacity by excess signal bandwidth. Artifacts may also result from: sampling effects in temporal, spatial, or frequency domains; processing by the transfer functions; compromises and inadequacies in the system employed; cascading of minor defects; basically any other departure of the total system from "complete transparency" resulting in visual errors.

Artifact Noticeable

loss of video and/or audio fidelity in a broadcast or recording caused by limitations in the technology used. Usually reflects undesirable distortion(s) of the original when digitized.


Asynchronous serial interface: A streaming data format which often carries an MPEG transport stream (MPEG-TS).

Aspect ratio

The ratio between the width and the height of the picture. In NTSC television sets, this is 4:3; in widescreen (ATSC) sets, 16:9. Sometimes it is printed decimally as 1.33:1 for 4:3 and 1.78:1 for 16:9.


A synonym for lower thirds, the graphics on the bottom part of a television screen. An on-screen overlaid graphic, usually giving the name of the speaker, reporter or place in frame. Name derived from Aston Broadcast Systems Ltd., an early manufacturer of character generator (CG) equipment.


Audio tape recorder: A method of recording sound by electromagnetic pulses on a sensitised plastic strip.


Advanced Television Systems Committee: A committee established by the FCC to decide the technical standards for digital broadcasting in the US.


reduction in signal strength.


The written phrase that identifies the source of a fact, opinion, or quote in a story.


African Union of Broadcasting (AUB, French: Union Africaine de Radiodiffusion (UAR)) is a professional body composed of the national radio and television organizations of African states. The organization is committed to the development of all aspects of broadcasting in Africa including the exchange of indigenous programming. It is headquartered in Dakar, Senegal.


The sound portion of a broadcast, film, tape, or other medium.

Audio channel

A medium through which audio signal travels from source to destination.

Audio effect

Audio feedback (also known as acoustic feedback, simply as feedback, or the Larsen effect) is a special kind of positive loop gain which occurs when a sound loop exists between an audio input (for example, a microphone or guitar pickup) and an audio output (for example, a power amplified loudspeaker). In this example, a signal received by the microphone is amplified and passed out of the loudspeaker. The sound from the loudspeaker can then be received by the microphone again, amplified further, and then passed out through the loudspeaker again. The frequency of the resulting sound is determined by resonance frequencies in the microphone, amplifier, and loudspeaker, the acoustics of the room, the directional pick-up and emission patterns of the microphone and loudspeaker, and the distance between them. For small PA systems the sound is readily recognized as a loud squeal or screech. The principles of audio feedback were first discovered by Danish scientist Soren Absalon Larsen, hence the name "Larsen Effect".

Audio operator

The person responsible for the technical quality of a program's sound. The audio operator works in a control room or an audio room and communicates by headset with the assistant audio operator and others on the floor of the studio.

Audio receive only (ARO)

A small dish antenna used by radio stations to receive sound from a satellite.

Audio/video (AV)

Sound and sight, as in a script with the text of the dialogue and a description of the accompanying visual action.


A magnetic strip on which are recorded electrical signals that can be converted to sound.

Audiovisual (AV or A.V.)

Involving both sound and sight.

Auto Balance

A system for detecting errors in color balance in white and black areas of the picture and automatically adjusting the white and black levels of both the red and blue signals as needed for correction.

Auto Light Range

The range of light, e.g., sunlight to moonlight, over which a TV camera is capable of automatically operating at specified output.

Automatic Brightness Control

In display devices, the self-acting mechanism which controls brightness of the device as a function of ambient light.

Automatic dialogue replacement (ADR)

A technique for recording a replacement dialogue track in which the performer is cued by electronic beeps and other techniques. The ADR editorsupervises the post-production alterations of the dialogue tracks.

Automatic Frequency

An arrangement whereby the frequency of an oscillator is automatically maintained within specified limits.

Automatic Gain Control


Automatic Iris Lens

A lens that automatically adjusts the amount of light reaching the imager.

Automatic Light Control

The process by which the illumination incident upon the face of a pickup device is automatically adjusted as a function of scene brightness.


stands for Audiovisual.

Average audience (AA)

The number of households tuned to a radio or TV program during a minute or other period, as expressed in an AA rating.

Average quarter hour (AQH)

The audience during a typical (average) 15-minute period of a radio or TV program, the smallest unit of time used by rating services. AQH Persons is the estimated number of individuals who listened to a station during an average quarter-hour. AQH Share represents the AQH Persons of a station expressed as a percent of the total persons listening to radio or TV during that time period. Average quarter-hour audience is an average of the number of people listening to a specific station or network for at least five minutes in each quarter-hour over a specified period of time, such as a day or week. The AQH rating is the AQH persons divided by the population in the listening area.


Video interface card with hardware embedded HEVC encoding

AWS (Amazon Web Services )

is a subsidiary of Amazon that provides on-demand cloud computing platforms to individuals, companies and governments, on a metered pay-as-you-go basis.



Typically a raw broadcast signal direct from a remote site that is devoid of program graphics or studio segments (see fronthaul).


The range of signal frequencies that a piece of audio or video equipment can encode or decode; the difference between the limiting frequencies of a continuous frequency band. Video uses higher frequency than audio, thus requires a wider bandwidth.

Bandwidth (abbrev. BW)

Bandwidth is the capacity of a wired or wireless network communications link to transmit the maximum amount of data from one point to another over a computer network or internet connection in a given amount of time -- usually one second. Synonymous with capacity, bandwidth describes the data transfer rate. Bandwidth is not a measure of network speed -- a common misconception. While bandwidth is traditionally expressed in bits per second (bps), modern network links have greater capacity, which is typically measured in millions of bits per second (megabits per second, or Mbps) or billions of bits per second (gigabits per second, or Gbps).

Bar Test Pattern (SMPTE)

Special test pattern for adjusting color TV receivers or color encoders. The upper portion consists of vertical bars of saturated colors and white. The power horizontal bars have black and white areas and I and Q signals.


A reference signal recorded on the beginning of a videotape for the purpose of aligning the playback of that tape. Most often, an audio reference (tone) is usually recorded at the same time as the bars.


A big close-up of a picture in photography, film, or television. ECU is an extreme close-up.

Be first

LiveU's BeFirst is a solution for integrating LiveU's Smart Technology into your existing mobile applications.


An audio signal used for alerting or warning, as on the soundtrack of a videotape for editing or notice of the forthcoming beginning of a scene, program, or commercial.


A telephone interview. Radio stations used to be required to insert a beep (audio signal) on recorded interviews to indicate that they were not live. Though this is no longer necessary, the term still is used to describe an interview conducted over the telephone rather than in the studio. It is also used to describe any long-distance interview. With the use of satellites, it is now possible to conduct long-distance interviews over television. A beeper line is a phone line connected to a tape recorder.


A type of 1/2-inch videotape and videocassette recorder (Betamax) made by Sony and others, primarily for home use but also used at TV stations.


Brand name of Sony broadcast-quality half-inch videotape and recorders. A standard in news and low- to medium-budget video productions, the camera and recorder are contained in one lightweight unit. The recorder also has a Dolby encoder, an audio limiter, and the ability to record address track time code. Even slow-motion playback of this format is available.


The Broadband Global Area Network (BGAN) is a global satellite network with telephony using portable terminals. The terminals are normally used to connect a device to broadband Internet in remote locations, although as long as line-of-sight to the satellite exists, the terminal can be used anywhere.


A constant amplitude high frequency signal added to the recording signal to improve the signal to noise ratio and reduce the distortion of an analog tape recording. It works by overcoming magnetic hysteresis.


Short for "Binary Digit". The smallest piece of binary digital data and is represented by either 0 or 1.

Bit Depth

The number of levels that a pixel might have, such as 256 with an 8-bit depth or 1024 with a 10-bit depth.

Bit Rate

a) The rate at which the compressed bit stream is delivered from the storage medium to the input of a decoder. The digital equivalent of analog bandwidth. b) The speed at which bits are transmitted, usually expressed in bit/s (sometimes abbreviated "bps"). video information, in a digitized image for example, is transferred, recorded, and reproduced through the production process at some bit rate appropriate to the nature and capabilities of the origination, the channel, and the receptor. c) The amount of data transported in a given amount of time, usually defined in Mbit/s. Bit rate is one means used to define the amount of compression used on a video signal. The uncompressed D1 format has a bit rate of 270 Mbit/s. MPEG-1 has a bit rate of 1.2 Mbit/s.


Burnt-In Time Code: pronounced bit-see. A permanently visible (as opposed to VITC clock counter superimposed over the video pictures, typically showing duration in hours, minutes, seconds and frames.


A short segment, or a take, such as a 15-second sound bite that is repeated on network radio and TV news programs. The major excerpt from an interview, a very quotable sentence or two, is called the news bite or bite-of-the day. A strong bite, the opposite of a weak bite, is dramatic. To pull a bite is to find a usable short section in a longer tape.

Bite off

The premature cutoff of a commercial, record, or program.


The bitrate of a video or digital audio stream is used to quantify the amount of data transmitted per second. The higher the bit rate, the better the quality of the video.

Black (BLK)

Very dark. Pitch black or pure black means totally without light. Television black reflects a very small amount of light from the screen, about 3-percent reflectance. Blank tape is not black tape.

Black clipping

A video control circuit that regulates, or clips, the bottom, or black level, of the picture signal so that it does not appear on the transmitted picture.

Black Clipping Circuit

An analog video control circuit that clips the black level signal from Black Encoded content prior to presentation. Historically used in analog TV broadcasts to prepare the video signal just prior to transmission. The presence of this signal in analog masters of classic Television shows and the lack of this circuit, or an equivalent filter, in digital conversion explains the presence of this encoded data in various content on Netflix, Hulu, and other digital content providers. Failing to leverage this encoded data also explains the poor color reproduction present in some cases.

Black Encoded

Refers to analog tv video content in which the video signal of black (7.5 IRE units) has been overlaid on the top or bottom edge of the frame and recorded or merged for broadcast.

Blackmagic DeckLink

are high performance capture cards for Mac, Windows and Linux with support for 12G-SDI and 8K.


1 Suppression, as of a video signal. Line blanking, or horizontal blanking, is a standard procedure in television transmission in which the video signal is suppressed during the brief interval while the electron beam, or scanning spot, is retracing its path, that is, returning from the end of one line to begin another line. Field blanking, or vertical blanking, is the suppression of the video signal during the brief interval when the beam finishes scanning one area, or field, and returns to the top to begin scanning the next area. The interval during which the signal is suppressed is the blanking period. The pulses added to the video signal to suppress it are the blanking signals. 2 The interval between picture frames. The standard TV signal transmits 30 frames per second, with intervals so brief that the eye merges them to produce an illusion of motion; the same concept applies to film (moving pictures).


A sudden rush or explosion. In broadcasting, blasting is excessive sound through a microphone.


A brief segment, such as a musical transition.


A small amount of space at the edges of a shot to compensate for any loss between the picture as it appears on the studio monitor and on the home screen.


The bleeding through of the high-pitched whine of time code onto the production track of three-quarter-inch tape.


Audio from an unwanted source.

Blind Interview

More common in print than in broadcast journalism, a blind or off-the-record interview is one in which the interviewee is intentionally left unaccredited (also known as a non-attributable.)


To flash. A blinker is a light that flashes to convey a message or warning, such as a signal to people in a studio. The off-and-on speed is the blink rate.


A brief interruption of sound on a program or tape; to interrupt or delete sound, as in blipping an expletive from a TV program.


A group of consecutive time periods. Block programming is the scheduling of programs with similar audience appeal. Air time set aside for special programming or deliberately not sold is blocked out. A news block is a segment devoted to news, such as a one-minute segment in a TV program.


The planned movement of performers or the camera.

Blocking tape

On film, stage, and TV sets, tape affixed to places on the floor to indicate where a performer should stand.


A halo or flare on the screen caused by reflections from a shiny object such as jewelry or lights, or a whitening in an overbright area; also called blooming, blossom, or puddling.


This effect is sometimes called whiter-than-white. Blooming occurs when the white voltage level is exceeded and screen objects become fuzzy and large. The defocusing of regions of a picture where brightness is excessive.


stands for Bayonet Neill-Concelman. This connector is a miniature quick connect/disconnect radio frequency connector used for coaxial cable.

Body brace

A camera support that attaches to the shoulders and waist of a camera operator.


aggregating multiple networks of varying bandwidths to create one single, reliable connection to transmit your live video content.

Boot Time

The process of setting up all of the operating programs of a unit until complete and ready to operate.


The boss_id is a unique ID for each server that is registered in LiveU system. When a client has an issue with their server, providing the boss-id of the server in advance can sometimes help save valuable time. To find it, in Ubuntu terminal pressing ctrl + alt + T and run the following command: cat /etc/liveu/baseuniqueid

Breaking news

Interruptions of regular or planned programming for recently-occurring events as reported by a news organization or agency.


An audio track linking between two news items.


The attribute of visual perception in accordance with which an area appear to emit more of less light. (Luminance is the recommended name for the photo-electric quantity which has also been called brightness.)


In TV system use, a device having a bandpass greater than the band of a single VHF TV channel.


A single radio or TV program; the transmission or duration of a program. Any message that is transmitted over a large area, not necessarily by a broadcast station, is said to be broadcast. For example, facsimile transmission of a document to more than one fax machine is called broadcasting.

Broadcast quality

The technical specifications of the video signal and the actual look of that signal. A technically perfect video signal might look terrible. For instance, a VHS tape, properly doctored through a digital effects generator, might meet a station's technical requirements but might be rejected because it is not a broadcast-quality picture. Each broadcast company, network, or station has its own level of quality.


The buffer is an allocated data storage space that contains information from the stream that the viewer or user is likely to use. In the case of a media stream like music or a movie, the buffer contains upcoming content the viewer hasn't seen or heard yet. The buffer may also contain recently viewed content for fast rewinding. When streaming programs, the buffer contains parts of the program the user has called and will likely call.


In the Solo Graphics system sometimes called Upper Right, its any element that stays on the screen for a long time.  Examples include a line notting this broadcast is live, noting the location, or maybe providing your shows social media handle.  


Also called burn. An image which persists in a fixed position in the output signal of a camera tube after the camera has been turned to a different scene or, on a monitor screen.


A central connection for several audio sources or a row of buttons on a video switching panel; also spelled buss.





The first standard for CCTV lens screw mounting. This mounting is defined by a 1-inch (2.54 cm) diameter hole with 32 TPI (turns/threads per inch), female on the camera side, male on the lens side, and a back flange-to-CCD distance of 17.526 mm (0.69 inches). The C-mount description applies to both lenses and cameras. C-mount lenses can be put on both, C-mount and CS-mount cameras; only in the latter case a 5 mm (.19 inches) adaptor is required.

Cable puller

A person responsible for setting up and handling power, sound, and picture cables. Generally one cable puller is allocated to each camera.


Programming carried on cable television, as opposed to over-the-air broadcasting; also called cable origination.


A combination TV camera and videotape recorder in one portable unit.

Camera cue

A red light or buzzer indicating that a TV camera is shooting a scene for transmission, live or taped; also called a cue light, tally light, or warning light.

Camera left (or camera right)

The left (or right) as seen from the camera operator's or viewer's position, as opposed to that of the performer; hence, the left (or right) of the image when viewed.

Camera shot

That part of the subject matter that is viewed and photographed by the camera.

Camera talk

A situation in which a performer looks directly into the lens to deliver a message to the audience.


Accessory enabling to mount a field unit on the camera and connect the external battery.

Capacitive Touch-Screen Interface

As in the LU600, the LCD is made on technology, based on capacitive sensing touchscreens as input devices, replacing mechanical buttons.


The process of superimposing subtitles at the bottom of a TV screen.


Short form of cartridge, a case containing magnetic tape. A cart machine is a tape-cartridge playback machine, used with a stack of perhaps a dozen cartridges, mostly to store and broadcast commercials and public service announcements on radio stations. In radio, a cart directory is a listing of cartridges in a rack or other storage, containing information about the cartridge number, title, artist, and running time. Television talk shows often post notices in the middle of a program to recruit participants for future shows; the announcement is called a cart, akin to a cart in an aisle.


stands for Constant Bit Rate. It is the compression measurement values ??of your video.

CCD (charge-coupled device)

See Charged-Couple Device.


Comite consultatif international pour la radio: In English, "International Radio Consultative Committee", the organisation responsible for assigning frequencies to radio stations between 1927 and 1992. Now known as ITU-R.

CCTV (closed-circuit television)

See Closed-Circuit Television.


A content delivery network or content distribution network (CDN) is a geographically distributed network of proxy servers and their data centers. Ex. Facebook, Youtube, Akamai...

Chalk off

To mark (with chalk, or more generally, tape) positions on the stage floor for use as reference by the performers. Chalking off a scene is generally called blocking a scene.

Channel (ch, ch, or ch.)

A frequency band assigned to a radio or TV station. Radio channel names generally are referred to with the word station followed by the call letters, particularly with AM stations. FM stations typically use the frequency number as identification. TV stations are mostly referred to by their channel numbers.

Charged Couple Device

a) A semiconductor device that converts optical images to electronic signals. CCDs are the most commonly found type of image sensor in consumer camcorders and video cameras. b) Serial storage technology that uses MOS capacitors. c) A solid-state image sensor that converts light energy to electricity.


A chatbot (also known as a spy, conversational bot, chatterbot, interactive agent, conversational interface, Conversational AI, talkbot or artificial spy entity) is a computer program or an artificial intelligence which conducts a conversation via auditory or textual methods.


The quality of color that embraces both hue and saturation. White, black, and grays have no chroma.

Chroma Control

A color TV receiver control that regulates the saturation (vividness) of colors in a picture.

Chroma Detector

Detects the absence of chrominance information in a color encoder input. The chroma detector automatically deletes the color burst from the color encoder output when the absence of chrominance is detected.

Chroma Key

Also known as green screening. See this post for further information.

Chromakey, Chroma-key, or chroma key

An electronic process that alters the background scene without affecting the foreground, also called color-separation overlay (abbreviated CSO). In the Chromakey system, a saturated color (usually blue) forms a hole in the background picture so that a second video source (such as a camera) can fill this area.

Chromatic Aberration

An optical defect of a lens that causes different colors or wavelengths of light to be focused at different distances from the lens. It is seen as color fringes or halos along edges and around every point in the image.


The color quality of light that is defined by the wavelength (hue) and saturation. Chromaticity defines all the qualities of color except its brightness.


A color term defining the hue and saturation of a color. Chrominance does not refer to brightness.

Chrominance Signal/Subcarrier

That portion of the NTSC color TV signal that contains the color information.


splits a S&F file into consecutive video files.


The words on the screen that identify speakers, locations, or story subjects. Chryon is a trade name for a type of character generator.

Circle wipe

An optical effect in which an image first appears as a dot in the center and then grows to full size while covering (wiping out) the preceding scene.


An optical effect in which a picture diminishes and disappears as it is replaced by a second picture that grows in a circle from the center; the opposite of a circle-out. It is also called iris in (whose opposite is iris out).

Citizen Journalism

Reporting which takes place outside of what is usually considered mainstream media, predominantly carried out by members of the public without formal training. Can include the work of bloggers and social media platforms.


A device which functions during the horizontal blanking or synchronizing interval to fix the level of the picture signal at some predetermined reference level at the beginning of each scanning line.


The process that established a fixed level for the picture level at the beginning of each scanning line.

Clear-channel station

An AM radio station authorized by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) to dominate its frequency. Such a station generally has the maximum power (50kw) and is protected (has no other stations at its frequency) for a distance of up to 750 miles. Many clear-channel stations can be heard at greater distances on clear nights. Clear channels are specific frequencies to which the FCC has assigned a limited number of stations.


The person directly responsible for paying for and/or supervising a session, project, or other entity.

Close-up (CU)

A tight photograph or shot, generally of the face and shoulders; a close shot.

Closed captioning

Text version of a program's dialogue, overlaid on the screen by an equipped television set for the hearing impaired.

Closed circuit

A term referring to audio and/or video transmission for controlled reception, such as to theaters, hotels, meeting places for sports events, conventions, and other one-time transmissions. Closed-circuit transmissions are also regularly sent to stations for their own personnel or for reviewers. Closed-circuit television (CCTV) is transmitted over cable to specific sites or broadcast in a scrambled format to sites that are provided with unscramblers.

Closed-Circuit Television

Video primarily used for surveillance and security that is not broadcast to the general public.

Cloud server

A cloud server is a logical server that is built, hosted and delivered through a cloud computing platform over the Internet. Cloud servers possess and exhibit similar capabilities and functionality to a typical server but are accessed remotely from a cloud service provider. A cloud server may also be called a virtual server or virtual private server.

CMOS (complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor)

A type of digital camera sensor.

Coaxial Cable

A particular type of cable capable of passing a wide range of frequencies with very low signal loss. Such a cable in its simplest form consists of a hollow metallic shield with a single wire accurately placed along the center of the shield and isolated from the shield.


A codec is a device or computer program for encoding or decoding a digital data stream or signal. Codec is a portmanteau of coder-decoder. A coder encodes a data stream or a signal for transmission or storage, possibly in encrypted form, and the decoder function reverses the encoding for playback or editing. Codecs are used in videoconferencing, streaming media, and video editing applications.


A visual perception that humans correspond to the categories called red, green, blue and others.

Color bar

A strip of gradation of primary colors and black, used for TV testing and for color standardization and accuracy.

Color burst

That portion of the composite color signal, comprising a few cycles of a sine wave of chrominance subcarrier frequency, which is used to establish a reference for demodulating the chrominance signal; Normally approximately 9 cycles of 3.579545 MHz.

Color correction

The changing of color shadings in a video picture. The process of color correction is time-consuming, so it is much wiser to get the color balance right during the production. Color correction can be as simple as changing the hue on a time base corrector or as complicated as using a machine that breaks down the video signal into its original components and then adjusts certain elements of those components. A video signal might require color correction because (1) the camera was not white-balanced; (2) one of the camera's color pickup tubes was not working correctly; (3) a playback was not properly set up to bars during an original edit, requiring the shot be fixed to balance the color of one or several shots; (4) a color shot must be made black-and-white.

Color corrector

A machine that is capable of drastically altering the color levels of a video signal.

Color Edging

Extraneous colors appearing at the edges of colored objects, and differing from the true colors in the object.

Color Encoder

A device which produces an NTSC color signal from separate R, G, and B video inputs.

Color Fringing

Spurious colors introduced into the picture by the change in position of the televised object from field to field.

Color Purity

The degree to which a color is free of white or any other color. In reference to the operation of a tri-color picture tube it refers to the production of pure red, green or blue illumination of the phosphor dot faceplate.

Color Saturation

The degree to which a color is free of white light.

Color Sync Signal

A signal used to establish and to maintain the same color relationships that are transmitted.

Color Transmission

The transmission of a signal which represents both the brightness values and the color values in a picture.

Commercial break

An interruption in radio or TV programming for broadcast of one or more advertisements (commercials).


LiveU Community uses groundbreaking LiveU technology to connect broadcasters and publishers with the best production companies and freelancers around the world for live event coverage

Component video recording

A technical method of recording a color picture on videotape that separates the black-and-white portion of the signal from the chroma. This method is used in half-inch professional video formats such as Betacam, Beta SP, MII, and D1.


The encoding of complete video information into one signal. Originally designed for broadcasting, this process was used extensively in postproduction until the late 1980s when component switchers, recorders, and other devices allowed for the creation of totally component signal paths. Component is a more accurate signal.

Composite Video Signal

The combined picture signal, including vertical and horizontal blanking and synchronizing signals.


This is a template, essentially.  Its both the graphical design of the graphics themselves as well as a list of possible elements you can pick from.  Once you pick a composition to start from, and start to actually edit the text and logos that will appear in each playlist, that is called a Playlist.

Compress & Forward

LiveU's Compress and Forward feature enables you to quickly and easily compress and/or forward video files directly to a LiveU field unit. To use this feature, the Compress and Forward application is installed on a laptop or PC. The Compress and Forward feature can be used to Compress and Forward, Forward Only, Compress Only.


a) The process of electronically processing a digital video picture to make it use less storage or to allow more video to be sent down a transmission channel. b) The process of removing picture data to decrease the size of a video image. c) The reduction in the volume of data from any given process so that more data can be stored in a smaller space. There are a variety of compression schemes that can be applied to data of which MPEG-1 and MPEG-2 are called lossy since the data produced by compression is not totally recoverable. There are other compression schemes that are totally recoverable, but the degree of compression is much more limited.


A generic term for connecting devices to each other in order to transfer data back and forth. It often refers to network connections.

Contrast Range (Ratio)

The ratio between the whitest and blackest portions of a TV image.

Control room

The room in which the director, engineer, and others adjust sound and/or video.


The crossover of the three electron beams of a three-gun tri-color picture tube. This normally occurs at the plane of the aperture mask.

Core Components

Equipment in the video system that can change the video signal, thereby affecting the quality of the delivered video.

Correspondent (cor., corr., or corres.)

A reporter who is a full-time or part-time employee of one of the media (not a stringer or freelancer) and who is based elsewhere than the headquarters of the employer.

Cover shot

A wide or long-distance view, such as generally begins a sequence, to establish the location. Also, a video that covers, or replaces, as when the audio part of an interview continues and the video is of a relevant event; also called cover footage.

Coverage (cvg)

1 [journalism] Media treatment, the extent to which an event is reported. 2[broadcasting] The geographical area (usually counties) in which a station is received by viewers or listeners, as indicated on a coverage map. 3 [film, television] The photographing of a scene from various views and using various exposures.


A central processing unit (CPU), also called a central processor or main processor, is the electronic circuitry within a computer that carries out the instructions of a computer program by performing the basic arithmetic, logic, controlling, and input/output (I/O) operations specified by the instructions.


A group of workers on a site or production, as distinguished from performers (cast).


Stands for Customer relationship management.


A rectangular cutting off of image edges.

Cross conversion

Changing scan rates for synchronicity within a broadcast plant. Typically done by converting between 720p, 1080i or 1080p


Live conversation between broadcasters, as between an anchorperson and an on-site reporter.


The technique where a DJ, producer or engineer fades out the out going track at the same time as fading in the new track.


An undesired signal from a different channel interfering with the desired signal.


A standard for CCTV lens screw mounting. This mounting is defined by a 1-inch (2.54 mm) diameter hole with 32 TPI (turns/threads per inch), female on the camera side, male on the lens side, and a back flange-to-CCD distance of 12.5 mm (0.49 inches). The CS-mount description applies to both lenses and cameras. CS-mount lens cannot be put on C-mount cameras. C-mount lenses can be put on CS-mount cameras but a 5 mm (1.9 inches) adaptor is required.


A signal in words or signs that initiates action, dialogue, effects, or other aspects of a production, such as an indication from a director for a performer or interview subject to begin or end. Exact timing is one cue. Cues may be given with a cue light, such as an On The Air sign or a warning light. A return cue is a verbal or other signal to return to the studio from a remote broadcast, such as a sports event. To cue ahead is to move a tape to the next broadcast or edit point.


In LiveU Matrix, the Curator is the person to manage available streams to be shared with Affiliates. The Curator can record messages that can be played back by Affiliates.


A transition (or transition point) from one scene to another (a visual cut) or one soundtrack to another (a sound cut). A late cut is made (generally unintentionally) slightly after the indicated moment, whereas a delayed cut is intentionally withheld so as to create suspense or for other effects. Also, an instruction to end a scene or to shift from one scene to another. The symbol for this command is an index finger drawn across the throat.


The insertion of a local commercial or announcement in a broadcast.


video card interface with embedded H264 encoding



Digital Audio Broadcasting: The use of digital encoding to send higher quality or a greater number of radio services to equipped receivers.


Digital-to-analog converter: Equipment that changes digital signals into pictures or sound.


LiveU's DataBridge allows broadcasters and other field crews to enjoy the highest bandwidth and availability for wireless broadband on-the-go. The service enables generic internet connectivity for download and upload of files and videos as well as bi-directional data traffic for any internet-based application such as Skype, Twitter, Facebook and VPNs. LiveU's DataBridge service provides a powerful WiFi hotspot or Ethernetbased internet access to any connected device such as laptops, phones, and tablets. The DataBridge boosts connectivity and productivity by leveraging multiple networks, including cellular, WiFi, Ethernet and satellite, providing a high capacity and resilient internet link. The service includes two operational modes - Multipath or Gateway - each optimized to ensure the best connectivity with minimal delay across different internet scenarios.

Databridge Gateway

Opimized for streaming, VPN connectivity in the field. Supported units: LU200, LU210/LU220, LU600. Bandwidth : (up to) 10 Mbps on LU200, up to 25 Mbps on LU600. Feature Support: LiveU Bonding, OPS & LU Central, high resiliency and isolation.

Databridge Multipath

Multipath (default mode) Optimized for general purpose internet connectivity, specifically file-transfer apps. Supported units: LU600. Bandwidth: (up to) 85 Mbps. Feature Support: no gateway required, FileCatalyst support, general purpose LAN/Wi-Fi internet.

dB (Decibel)

A measure of the power ratio of two signals. In system use, a measure of the voltage ratio of two signals, provided they are measured across a common impedance.


Direct-broadcast satellite: Television and radio programs distributed by satellite for reception via a dish at the receiver's property.

Dead spot

An area where broadcast reception is weak; also called dead space. A dead spot is also a broadcast commercial or program not aired, sometimes called black space.


On deck is to be ready; an on-deck camera is a TV camera whose picture is currently not being transmitted despite its readiness to become an on-air camera.


Device used to recover the component signals from a composite (encoded) source. Decoders are used in displays and in various processing hardware where components signals are required from a composite source such as composite chroma keying or color correction equipment. Device that changes digital signals to analog, or reconstructs information (data) by performing the inverse (reverse) functions of an encode process.


The aggregate of fine details available on-screen. The higher the definition of an image, the greater the number of details [that can be discerned by the human eye or displayed]. During video recording and subsequent playback, several factors can conspire to cause a loss of definition. Among these are the limited frequency response of magnetic tapes and signal losses associated with electronic circuitry employed in the recording process. These losses occur because fine details appear in the highest frequency region of a video signal and this portion is usually the first casualty of signal degradation. Each additional generation of a videotape results in fewer and fewer fine details as losses are accumulated.

Delayed broadcast (D.B.)

The broadcast of a radio or TV program at a time later than its original transmission, a common procedure in the Pacific time zone.


Demonstration, as in a demo record, or reel of a record or tape produced for an audition.

Demographics (demos)

The external characteristics of a population, such as TV viewers, as related to age, sex, income, education, marital status, and other quantifiable descriptions.

Depth of Field

The in-focus range of a lens or optical system around an item of interest. It is measured from the distance behind an object of interest, to the distance in front of the object of interest, when the viewing lens is specifically focused on the object of interest. Depth of field depends on subject-to-camera distance, focal length of the lens, and f-stop.

Depth of Focus

The range of sensor-to-lens distance for which the image formed by the lens is clearly focused.

Designated Market Area (DMA)

A Nielsen Media Research term for a group of counties in which a TV station obtains the greatest portion of its audience. Each U.S. county is part of only one DMA. The Designated Market Area Rating is the percentage of TV homes within the area viewing an individual station during a particular time period.


The primary method of data storage and transmission, in which each code is given a unique combination of bits and each bit generally indicates the presence or absence of a condition (on or off, yes or no, true or false, open or closed). A digital camera record images as pixels.

Digital Signal

a) An electronic signal where every different value from the real-life excitation (sound, light) has a different value of binary combinations (words) that represent the analog signal. b) An analog signal that has been converted to a digital form.

Digital Signal Processing (DSP)

When applied to video cameras, DSP means that the analog signal from the CCD sensors is converted to a digital signal. It is then processed for signal separation, bandwidth settings and signal adjustments. After processing, the video signal either remains in the digital domain for recording by a DVR or is converted back into an analog signal for recording or transmission. DSP is also used in other parts of the video chain, including DVRs, and switching and routing devices.

Digital Television

The transmission of a broadcast audio/video signal that consists of digital data.

Digital video

A video picture that recorded digitally. Some machines can store single frames and short segments of video digitally on disks. There are also tape machines that can store large amounts of video digitally. Multiple generations of digital video look exactly like the camera original because the picture is recreated by digital signals rather than by copying the signal.


Converting analog audio and/or video into digital form.


Not bright; unclear. To dim or dim down is to reduce the light intensity; to dim up or dim in is to increase the light gradually, and to dim out is to reduce the light to blackout.

Direct broadcast satellite (DBS)

A high-powered satellite for broadcasting directly to homes.


A microwave transmitter or receiver with a concave (dishlike) reflector to concentrate and focus signals. A small dish can be attached to a microphone to pick up from a large area; a large dish can be set atop a tower or roof to transmit or pick up from a satellite. A communications satellite sometimes is called a skydish or big dish (in the sky).


a) The ultimate image presented to a viewer; the process of presenting that image. b) CRT, LCD, LED or other photoluminescent panel upon which numbers, characters, graphics or other data is presented.

Distance shot

A view in which the subject is a long distance from the camera or appears to be far away; also called a long shot.


The deviation of the received signal waveform from that of the original transmitted waveform.

Distribution Amplifier

A device that provides several isolated outputs from one looping or bridging input, and has a sufficiently high input impedance and input-to-output isolation to prevent loading of the input source.

Distribution Server

The Distribution server distributes the live video feed to one or more LU2000s (Subscribers). This component can be either a cloud-based server or a physical server located on premises (local).


Lu2000 server that send video feed to another LU2000 server

Distributor channel

This channel is used only for distribution. Requires assignment to a different channel, which will be the publisher.


Domain name resolution in computer technology; translation of Internet protocol address to names


Digital on-screen graphic: A station logo, BUG or slogan permanently displayed on screen during a program. Controversial due to "screenburn" issues, found to be distracting, among other reasons.



Dolby Digital

Also Dolby D. The standard for 5.1 channel (surround sound) audio. Six discrete channels are used (Left, Center, Right, Left Rear Surround, Right Rear Surround, and Subwoofer).


Pertaining to radiocommunication service, a downlink (DL or D/L) is the portion of a feeder link used for the transmission of signals from a space radio station, space radio system or high altitude platform station to an earth station. In the context of satellite communications, a downlink (DL) is the link from a satellite to a ground station. Pertaining to cellular networks, the radio downlink is the transmission path from a cell site to the cell phone. Traffic and signalling flowing within the base station subsystem (BSS) and network switching subsystem (NSS) may also be identified as uplink and downlink.


Digital Video Broadcasting: The MPEG-2 based standard of digital transmission and reception. Comes in variants according to the type of broadcast, e.g. DVB-T for terrestrial.


An acronym for "Digital Versatile Disk". It is the same size as a compact disc (CD). A single-layer DVD has a storage capacity of 4.7 GB and a dual-layer disc has a capacity of 8.5 GB.

Dynamic Adaptive Bitrate

Dynamic Adaptive Streaming over HTTP (DASH), also known as MPEG-DASH, is an adaptive bitrate streaming technique that enables high quality streaming of media content over the Internet delivered from conventional HTTP web servers.



Engineer-in-charge, as of a TV production.

Ear prompter

A tiny ear plug connected to a small audio recorder, enabling a performer to hear a recorded script while on stage or on camera.

Ear shot

A close-up of a person in profile.


A device, akin to a miniature loudspeaker, that reproduces sound and is worn over the ears; more commonly called headphones or a headset.

Earth station

Equipment for transmitting or receiving satellite communications, such as a parabolic or dish antenna that sends or receives TV signals over the air directly from satellites or other sources. Owners of earth stations include cable systems and individuals, who thus bypass cable systems. Also called a ground station.

Edit decision list (EDL)

A record of all times on a video at which selections or other editing is to be produced.

Editing room

The room in which a film is edited or cut; generally called a cutting room; also a room in which videotape is edited, often called an edit suite.


A device for revising film, tape, or other materials, including the actual cutting and splicing, or joining, which is done mechanically or electronically under the supervision of a person also called an editor (or film editor, sound editor, or tape editor).


A technique or device for producing a visual or auditory illusion, such as sound effects, special effects, or optical effects.


Property, impression. Special effects are optics (optical effects) or visual effects to produce illusions. Sound effects are audio devices for simulation of a specific sound. The abbreviation is FX or sometimes, EFX, or as with video effects, E.


A verb in newsrooms, as in "I am efforting that package to have it ready for tonight's broadcast."

EIA Sync

The signal used for the synchronizing of scanning specified in EIA Standards RS-170, RS-330, RS-343, or subsequent issues.

Eight ball

A nondirectional, small, round microphone.

Electret microphone

An electrostatic microphone, such as a small lapel mike.

Electronic camera

A filmless camera in which images are recorded on a computer disk and instantly transmitted to computer screens; also called a digital camera.

Electronic character generator (ECG)

A typewriterlike machine that produces weather reports, sports scores, identifications, and other lettering as part of a TV picture.

Electronic cue

An audio or video signal indicating the end of a tape or other instruction.

Electronic editing

The use of a computer or control board, rather than manual splicing, for the editing, or cutting, of tape.

Electronic field production (EFP)

The use of equipment (generally portable, such as a minicam, or electronic camera) outside a TV studio to produce nonnews material, such as programming or commercials.

Electronic journalism (EJ)

Live transmission or videotaping from a location away from the television studio, by an EJ camera crew.

Electronic news gathering (ENG)

The use of an electronic, portable TV camera (minicam) to videotape or broadcast news from outside the studio. By eliminating film, ENG has produced considerable savings in time and personnel and added a mobility to the news operations of TV stations.

Electronic setup (ESU)

The prebroadcast time during which equipment is set up and tested.

Electronic sports gathering (ESG)

The use of cameras, mobile units, and other equipment to produce a telecast of a sports event.

Electronic still store (ESS)

An electronic still-frame storage device, with a storage area of photographic slides, titles, and other stills that can be selected instantly.

Electronic viewfinder (EVF)

A small screen for monitoring while operating a video camera. It may be built in or separate.


An encoder is a device, software program, algorithm that converts information from one format or code to another, for the purpose of standardization, speed or compression.


The process of encoding, as in the scrambling of TV signals. Pay-TV transmission often is encrypted, and subscribers have devices that decrypt, or unscramble.


A notation at the end of a broadcast script or other item, similar to # # # and other notations.


Electronic news gathering.


The engine is the resource in the cloud that renders your graphics into your video stream.  Each new stream requires an engine.  For the most part, Solo Portal will start and stop the engine for you, this is why its important to start the stream from the solo portal, rather then from the unit.  In some rare or problem cases, the engine may still be running when your stream has stopped (maybe your batteries ran out!), and these cases an override link of Stop Engine is provided on the dashboard to stop the resource at any time. Lower Third, Lower Line, Lower Topic, etc: a common graphic element in TV, you have seen it hundreds of times! Its a bar and text that appears in the lower 1/3 of the screen, providing information - such as a name, place, or topic.  Depending on exact positioning and format it can have a few names but the idea is almost always the same.


A process that attempts to enhance the quality of a recording by filtering out distortions and other undesirable elements.


Enterprise resource planning system (we use Priority).

Establishing shot

An opening comprehensive view, a long or wide shot to set the scene or acquaint the audience with the setting, characters, or plot, followed by details and closer action; also called an orientation shot.

External Antenna

antenna located on the outside of the but attached to the device through a connector

External Modem

modem located outside the device, but attached to the device

Extreme close-up (ecu or xcu)

A tight camera shot, close in and limited to one part of the subject.

Eye contact

The practice of looking a person in the eyes. In film and TV, eye contact is achieved by looking directly into the camera.


The direction the eyes are looking. In TV, a cheated eyeline occurs when a performer does not look directly at a subject, such as another performer, but turns somewhat toward the camera. Clear the eyeline is a cue to remove any people who are in the actor's line of vision, other than performers who are supposed to be in the scene.

Eyewitness news

A TV news format featuring on-the-scene reporters, generally shot with a minicam, a portable electronic camera.


F-Stop (also known as f-number or f-system)

The speed or ability of a lens to pass light. It is calculated by dividing the focal length of the lens by its diameter. The f-stop also is a factor in more areas of focus in the image known as Depth of Field.

F/x or fx

Special effects, a motion-picture term for animation, objects, and other techniques and devices that are not real; also, an abbreviation for sound effects. The name of the cable TV channel FX is based on its owners, Fox Broadcasting Company.

Face time

The amount of time that the head of a TV newscaster or other person is shown on the screen.


To vary in intensity, as a gradual change of audio or video, as in fade to white (an instruction to change from dark to white), fade to black, or fade to red. A crossfade is the fading out of one element while fading in another.

Fade bar

A video switch-control device to dissolve and fade the picture.

Fade down

To gradually decrease the audio level of a recording.

Fade under

A direction, such as to reduce music or sound effects sufficiently that they're heard only in the background.

Fade up

To gradually increase the audio level of a recording.

Fade-in (FI)

A shot that begins in darkness and gradually lightens up to full brightness; also called a fade-up. The opposite is fade-out or fade to black. In relation to sound, fade-in can mean the gradual heightening of volume.


See pot.


A non-breaking news story on people, trends, or issues. A feature story isn't necessarily related to a current event.


A satellite or microwave transmission of live or recorded material.


A loud noise produced when the amplified sound from an output ( loudspeaker ) is picked up by an input ( microphone, phonograph ) feeding that loudspeaker. This can be potentially damaging to both the speaker(s) in question, as well as the hearing of the subjected listener. This may also occur when an input is directly patched into an output of the same device, usually due to operator error. In radio broadcasting, feedback may occur when a DJ increases his or her headphone volume to a high enough level that the microphone is able to pick up the sound coming from the headphones, usually when the DJ's head is turned to one side.


In satellite broadcasting, a part of a receiving antenna--a dish--that collects the signal reflected from the main surface reflector and channels it into a low-noise amplifier.

Fiber Optics (use of light transmitted through fibers)

The technology of transferring information, e.g., in communications or computer technology, through thin flexible glass or plastic tubes of optical fibers using modulated light waves.

Fidelity (precision of reproduction field)

The extent to which an electronic device such as a stereo system or television accurately reproduces sound or images. a) In interlaced scan systems, the information for one picture is divided up into two fields. Each field contains one-half of the lines required to produce the entire picture. Adjacent lines in the picture are in alternate fields. b) Half of the horizontal lines (262.5 in NTSC and 312.5 in PAL) needed to create a complete picture. c) One complete vertical scan of an image. In a progressive scanning system, all of the scanning lines comprising a frame also comprise a field. d) An area in a window in which you can type text. e) A television picture is produced by scanning the TV screen with an electron beam. One complete scan of the screen is called a field. Two fields are required to make a complete picture, which is called a frame. The duration of a field is approximately 1/60 of a second in NTSC and 1/50 or 1/60 of a second in PAL. f) One half of a complete interlaced video picture (frame), containing all the odd or even scanning lines of the picture.


The part of a scene--called field of view, field of action or action field--that's visible at any given moment or the area of a video screen on which identification titles or other text or art may be inserted. A field pickup is a remote transmission, not from the studio. In TV transmission in the United State, 60 fields are transmitted per second, each one containing either the odd or even scanning lines of the picture (odd or even fields), so that one field equals half of a picture frame.

Field of View

The maximum angle of view that can be seen through a lens.

Field producer

A person who works outside the headquarters studio--in the field--to supervise the production of programs or segments, as of a news program.

Field Unit

LiveU units as used on the fields or for Outside broadcast LU200, LU300, LU500, LU600.

File film

Stock footage from the library, or file, of a TV station or other source. When used as background material in a TV newscast, file film generally is identified by a line at the top or bottom of the screen with the date on which it was originally taken.

File Transfer

File transfer is the transmission of a computer file through a communication channel from one computer system to another. Typically, file transfer is mediated by a communications protocol. A file transfer protocol is a convention that describes how to transfer files between two computing endpoints. As well as the stream of bits from a file stored as a single unit in a file system, some may also send relevant metadata such as the filename, file size and timestamp - and even file system permissions and file attributes.


Fast File Transfer solutions are faster , secure and more reliable than FTP(file tranfer protocol ).


It is a specific class of computer software that provides the low-level control for the device's specific hardware.

Flagship Portable Transmission Unit

The best or the most important unit manufactured by an organisation

Flagship station

The principal or showpiece station of a broadcast network or group.


Adobe Flash Player (labeled Shockwave Flash in Internet Explorer and Firefox) is computer software for using content created on the Adobe Flash platform, including viewing multimedia contents, executing rich Internet applications, and streaming audio and video. Flash Player can run from a web browser as a browser plug-in or on supported mobile devices.

Flip card

A board or card with a title, name, or message, used on TV or in a show or presentation; also called a cue card.

Flipover or flip-over

A transitional optical effect, akin to turning over a page; also called a flip, flip frame, flip wipe, flipover wipe, flopover, optical flop, or turnaround.


A rapid variation in the pitch or of a recorded audio signal usually on a turntable or tape recording, caused by variations in the speed of the turntable or tape drive.

FMA (Field material Authorisation.

Authorisation for replacement of faulty parts with working ones on the field, as opposed to returning the product to the manufucturer

Focal Length (of a lens)

The distance from the focal point to the principal point of the lens. The focal length is usually measured in millimeters of the lens. Focal length is an indication of the lens capability to capture a wide angle of view or a narrow view of objects that are far away (telephoto).

Focal Plane

A plane (through the focal point) at right angles to the principal point of the lens.

Focal Point

The point at which a lens or mirror will focus parallel incident radiation.


Length. A portion of a film is called footage, such as daily footage or news footage.


The general character of the programs, such as all-news, classical, or country-and-western music.

Format Clock

A format clock is a diagram produced by a program director or a producer to illustrate where each programming element appears in a typical hour.

Forward Error Correction

In telecommunication, forward error correction (FEC) or channel coding is a technique used for controlling errors in data transmission over unreliable or noisy communication channels. The central idea is the sender encodes the message in a redundant way by using an error-correcting code (ECC).

Fourth-Generation (4G)

broadband cellular network technology, succeeding 3G. It enables mobiles to connect to internet faster than previous technologies.


frames per second are the number of times the television is refreshed in a second of time. As a rule of thumb, this is the same as the local Alternating Current electricity supply - 60 Hz or 50 Hz.


A complete scanning of an image (525 lines in the U.S. system), requiring 1/60 of a second each for the odd- and even-numbered lines for a total of 1/30 of a second. A half-picture, consisting of either the odd- or even-numbered lines, is called a field. The frame frequency is the number of times per second the picture area is covered or scanned. In TV, it is 30 cycles per second (cps).

Frame Rate (also known as frame frequency)

a) The rate at which frames of video data are scanned on the screen. In an NTSC system, the frame rate is 29.97 frames per second. For PAL, the frame rate is 25 frames per second. b) The number of frames per second at which a video clip is displayed. c) The rate at which frames are output from a video decoding device or stored in memory.

Frame time code

A process, established by the Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers, of identifying each frame of a videotape. The drop-in frame time code counts 30 frames per second, but omits (drops) two frames every minute as the actual speed is slightly less.

Frame Transfer

A CCD imager where an entire matrix of pixels is read into storage before being output from the camera. This differs from interline transfer where lines of pixels are output.

Frame up

A director's command to adjust the picture.


Frame Rate Conversion is a technology to synchronize and change frame rates between two formats (ie: film to video, PAL to NTSC, 50 Hz to 60 Hz. etc..)

Freeze frame

A technique in which a single frame is repeated or reprinted in sequence to give the effect of frozen, suspended, or stopped motion. Also called hold frame or stop frame, the technique often is used at the end of a theatrical of TV film as a final scene that remains motionless for a short period.

Frequency Interlace

The method by which color and black-and-white sideband signals are interwoven within the same channel bandwidth.

Frequency modulation (FM)

The encoding of a carrier wave, such as the sound waves or audio signals of a radio or TV station, by the variation--modulating--of its frequency, resulting in little or no static and high fidelity in reception. FM radio stations, from 88 to 108 megahertz produce reception superior to that of AM or amplitude modulation stations, particularly of music in the high-frequency range.

Frequency Response

The range of frequencies that a piece of equipment can process and is directly related to the system's ability to uniformly transfer signal components of different frequencies over the entire video spectrum without affecting their amplitudes. This parameter is also known as gain/frequency distortion or amplitude versus frequency response. The amplitude variation maybe expressed in dB, percent or IRE.


File Transfer Protocol

Fullscreen Graphic or FS

A still or animated image, usually computer generated, that takes up the whole screen.



The head electrician.


Increase of signal power, particularly sound volume. The control that regulates the volume or another level is called the gain, as in turn up the gain. To ride the gain is to monitor the control indicator. To gain-up is to increase; digital gain-up is a feature on video cameras that electronically stores an image for a fraction of a second to accumulate light so that a dark picture can be lightened.


Also known as the production control room or the studio control room. Where the composition of the outgoing program takes place.


A numerical value, or the degree of contrast in a video picture, which is the exponent of that power law which is used to approximate the curve of output magnitude versus input magnitude over the region of interest. Since picture monitors have a nonlinear relationship between the input voltage and brightness, the signal must be correspondingly pre distorted. Gamma correction is always done at the source (camera).

Gamma Correction

To provide for a linear transfer characteristic from input to output device.


Distributing a reference signal to multiple video devices in order to make them operate at the same frequency.


A class of objects derived from a preceding class. In films and tapes, the master, or original, is the first generation. Any copy made from the master is second generation, called a copy, dupe, or dub, and a copy of a second-generation dupe is of the third generation.


A device used to lock the frequency of an internal sync generator to an external source.


An electricity generator, particularly a portable generator on a film or TV set.


A spurious image resulting from an echo.


Gigahertz: Thousand million cycles per second. The measurement for satellite frequencies.


A mishap, error, or malfunction, as in mechanical, electrical, or electronic equipment.


The LiveU Go-Plan gives broadcasters the opportunity to maximize their content gathering potential by providing LiveU software access to unlimited users within the organization.


A graphics processing unit (GPU) is a specialized electronic circuit designed to rapidly manipulate and alter memory to accelerate the creation of images in a frame buffer intended for output to a display device.

Gray Scale

Variations in value from white, through shades of gray, to black on a display.


Global System for Mobile communications is a standard developed by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) to describe the protocols for second-generation (2G) digital cellular networks used by mobile devices such as mobile phones and tablets. It was first deployed in Finland in December 1991. As of 2014, it has become the global standard for mobile communications - with over 90% market share, operating in over 193 countries and territories.


The graphical user interface (GUI) is a form of user interface that allows users to interact with electronic devices through graphical icons and visual indicators such as secondary notation, instead of text-based user interfaces, typed command labels or text navigation.



Also known as MPEG-4 AVC (Advanced Video Coding) it is now one of the most commonly used recording formats for high definition video. It offers significantly greater compression than previous formats.


High-definition video is video of higher resolution and quality than standard-definition. While there is no standardized meaning for high-definition, generally any video image with considerably more than 480 vertical lines (North America) or 576 vertical lines (Europe) is considered high-definition. 480 scan lines is generally the minimum even though the majority of systems greatly exceed that. Images of standard resolution captured at rates faster than normal (60 frames/second North America, 50 fps Europe), by a high-speed camera may be considered high-definition in some contexts.


High-Definition Multimedia Interface) is a proprietary audio/video interface for transmitting uncompressed video data and compressed or uncompressed digital audio data from an HDMI-compliant source device, such as a display controller, to a compatible computer monitor, video projector, digital television, or digital audio device. HDMI is a digital replacement for analog video standards.


High-definition television: Broadcasting using a line standard of 720 or greater. Prior to World War II, high definition meant a line standard greater than 240 lines.


The projecting part--for instance, the head of a tape recorder, which records and plays back the magnetic signals; the designation of parts of a TV camera. The camera consists of the camera head (the lens, tubes, viewfinder, and cable), panning head or pan head (platform and handle, for turning), and mounting.


A radio or telephone receiver held to the ear or ears by a band over the head.


The field of vision between the top of a performer in a film or TV program and the top of the motion picture or TV screen. In a close-up, the headroom is diminished.


An earphone, generally with an attached mouthpiece transmitter.


The standard unit for measuring frequency. One hertz (abbreviated Hz) equals one cycle per second. It is commonly used to measure sound waves, light waves and radio waves.


High efficiency video coding also know as H265, is a more efficient video compression standard succeeding AVC or H264. The LiveU HEVC pro video card works with LU600, bringing users the ultimate 4K live video performance.

High-definition television (HDTV)

A system with higher resolution, or pictorial clarity, and other qualities that are superior to techniques currently used by U.S. television stations. In HDTV, more lines per picture frame are transmitted than is standard (525 lines per frame in the United States), resulting in sharper, more vivid images.

Hit or Glitch

Any distortion or technical distraction in video or audio.

Holdover audience

That portion of a television or radio audience for one program who were tuned to the previous program on the same station; also called an inherited audience or a carry-over audience.

Hot box

A box in which lighting cables are plugged; also called a junction box. Hot refers to electricity.


Highest bit rate. Provides the best video quality with the slowest file upload. This option is recommended when the highest quality is required and network performance is high, or when it is not urgent for the video to arrive at the studio.


Corresponds to colors such as red, blue, etc. A color wheel contains basic pigments. All the hues of the rainbow encircle the cone's perimeter. The wavelength of the color that allows color to be distinguished such as red, blue and green. Often used synonymously with the term tint. It is the dominant wavelength that distinguishes a color such as red, yellow, etc. Most commonly, video hue is influenced by a camera's white balance or scene lighting. Video color processors, such as the video equalizer, are the main tools used to adjust and correct hue problems.

Hue, Saturation, and Intensity (HSI)

Color space system based on the values of Hue, Saturation, and Intensity. Intensity, analogous to luma, is the vertical axis of the polar system. The hue is the angle and the saturation is the distance out from the axis.



Hybrid Connection

a combination of two different types of connections (ie cellular/satellite).


The hertz (symbol: Hz) is the derived unit of frequency in the International System of Units (SI) and is defined as one cycle per second.



A station's symbol or logo, often accompanied by music, a jingle or an animation.

IFB or Interrupt Feedback

Also know as Comms or talkback The earpiece through which a director or producer instructs a correspondent in the field or anchor in the studio. The producer interrupts whatever feedback the reporter is getting in the earpiece.


a) A bit stream duplicate of the original data. b) An imitation or representation of a person or thing, drawn, painted, photographed, axis etc.

Image liner

A short audio clip played frequently on a radio station between songs and ads to identify the station that is being aired. I.E the stations call letters or positioning statement.

Image Plane

The plane in which an image produced by an optical system is formed; if the object plane is perpendicular to the optical axis, the image plane will ordinarily also be perpendicular to the axis.

Impedance (input or output)

The total of the resistance, measured in ohms, that a circuit presents to the flow of alternating current at a given frequency (Columbia University). The characteristics of a system component that determines the type of transmission cable to be used. The cable used must have the same characteristic impedance as the component. Video distribution has standardized on 75-ohm coaxial and 124-ohm balanced cable.


Referring to a division or unit that is part of or within a company organization, as differentiated from a vendor or an outside agency.

Independent station

A radio or TV station not owned by a national network.

Input feeds

inbound stream,

Insertion Loss

The signal strength loss when a piece of equipment is inserted into a line.


It is a video stream or channel create on the the LU2000. The LU2000 server or Multi-Media Hub (MMH) runs multiple instances, where each MMH recombines the streams received from a specific field unit (e.g. the LU600) into a discrete broadcast-quality video stream that can be played out over an integrated SDI interface on the LU2000 or streamed from the LU2000 to a CDN.


Disturbance to the normal or expected operation electronic devices, equipment and systems. The inhibition or prevention of clear reception of broadcast signals.

Interlaced Scanning

A technique of combining two television fields in order to produce a full frame. The two fields are composed of only odd and only even lines, which are displayed one after the other but with the physical position of all the lines interleaving each other, hence interlace.

Interlaced video

Also known as Interlaced scan is a technique for doubling the perceived frame rate of a video display without consuming extra bandwidth. The interlaced signal contains two fields of a video frame captured at two different times. This enhances motion perception to the viewer, and reduces flicker by taking advantage of the phi phenomenon.

Interline Transfer

A technology of CCD design, where rows of pixels are output from the camera. The sensor's active pixel area and storage register are both contained within the active image area. This differs from frame transfer cameras that move all active pixels to a storage register outside of the active area.

Internal Modem

Modem located outside the equipment, but attached to the equipment.


Complete list of devices and services belonging to a client.


An Internet Protocol address (IP address) is a numerical label assigned to each device connected to a computer network that uses the Internet Protocol for communication. An IP address serves two principal functions: host or network interface identification and location addressing.


An adjustable aperture built into a camera lens to permit control of light transmission through the lens.


Integrated Services Digital Network - digital, high bandwidth telephone lines that can deliver data over the Internet. Data, including encoded audio and video, travels at 128K bits per second over an ISDN line.

Isolation Amplifier

An amplifier with input circuitry and output circuitry designed to eliminate the effects of changes made at either upon the other. They provide electrical isolation and a safety barrier.


International Telecommunication Union: Originally the International Telegraph Union, the ITU is the international organization established in 1865 to standardize and regulate international radio and telecommunications.


Interactive television Systems that allow viewers to interact (e.g. play games, shop for related items or find further information) either two-way, via a telephone line, or one-way, via MHEG graphics.



Small, rapid variations in a waveform due to mechanical disturbances or to changes in the characteristic of components. Supply voltages, imperfect synchronizing signals, circuits, frequency pulses, etc.


It is a button or lever that enables one to perform different functions e.g scroll, select , cancel etc.

Join in progress (JIP)

An instruction to a station to cut in and start broadcasting a program already started, such as live coverage of a news event.


Ka band

The Ka band is a portion of the microwave part of the electromagnetic spectrum defined as frequencies in the range 26.5-40 gigahertz (GHz)]. The band is called Ka, short for "K-above" because it is the upper part of the original NATO K band, which was split into three bands (Ku, K, and Ka). In satellite communications, the Ka band allows higher bandwidth communication.


KA-SAT is a high-throughput telecommunications satellite owned by Eutelsat. The satellite provides broadband Internet access services across Europe and also a small area of the Middle East, and additionally the Saorsat TV service to Ireland. The satellite is named after the Ka band frequency, which is used on the spacecraft.

Key station

The station from which a program in a network or group broadcast originates; also called a master station.


kilohertz. Thousand cycles per second. kHz is used to measure mediumwave and often shortwave frequencies.

Ku band

The Ku band is the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the microwave range of frequencies from 12 to 18 gigahertz (GHz). The symbol is short for "K-under" (originally German: Kurz-unten), because it is the lower part of the original NATO K band, which was split into three bands (Ku, K, and Ka). Ku band is primarily used for satellite communications, most notably the downlink used by direct broadcast satellites to broadcast satellite television Ku band satellites are also used for backhauls and particularly for satellite from remote locations back to a television network's studio for editing and broadcasting.


Lapel mike

A small microphone clipped to a lapel, necktie, shirt, or elsewhere, or worn hanging around the neck; also called a lavaliere.


A throat microphone, attached more closely to the neck than a lapel mike; pronounced la-RING-guh-fone.


It is the delay necessitated by the conversion between analog and digital representations of audio/video data


stands for liquid-crystal display. It is a flat-panel display that uses the light-modulating properties of liquid crystals.


One or more pieces of curved optical glass or similar material designed to form an image of an object by converging or diverging rays of light from the object.

Lens Preset Positioning

Follower Pots are installed on lens that allows feedback to the controller information relevant to zoom and focus positioning allowing the controller to quickly adjust to a preselected scene and arrive in focus at the proper focal length automatically.

Lens Speed

The ability of a lens to transmit light, represented as the ratio of the focal length to the diameter of the lens. The largest lens opening (smallest f-number) at which the lens can be set. A fast lens transmits more light and has a larger opening than a slow lens


A method of displaying widescreen video on a screen with a different aspect ratio by leaving a space, usually black bars, above and below the image.

Lift microphone

A directional microphone with an acoustical transmission line in front of the transducer, often with a pole at least 2 feet long. Commonly used in film and TV studios, it sometimes is called a shotgun microphone.

Lighting Level

A generalized use class aspect that specifies the level of lighting do you anticipate in a scene of interest. See also, the Lighting Level topic for video quality requirements considerations.

Line Amplifier

An amplifier for audio or video signals that in installed in the transmission line to boost the signal as it travels over certain distances; also called program amplifier.

Line standard

The number of lines broadcast to make up a television picture. Generally, 525 in NTSC areas and 625 elsewhere.


Lip sync or lip synch (short for lip synchronization) is a technical term for matching a speaking or singing person's lip movements with prerecorded sung or spoken vocals that listeners hear, either through the sound reinforcement system in a live performance or via television, computer, cinema speakers, or generally anything with audio output in other cases. The term can refer to any of a number of different techniques and processes, in the context of live performances and audiovisual recordings.


Any programming which is broadcast immediately as it is being delivered (a live report); performed (a live concert or show); or captured (live news or sports coverage). Requires an unbroken communications chain without any intervening recording or storage technology. Considered the most exciting form of broadcasting, delivered "as it happens".

Live & Store

It an a LiveU operating mode where the LiveU unit records the live transmission on the LU600 or LU300 memory.


Live-streaming refers to online streaming media simultaneously recorded and broadcast in real time. It is often referred to simply as streaming, however this abbreviated term is ambiguous due to the fact that "streaming" may refer to any media delivered and played back simultaneously without requiring a completely downloaded file.

LiveU Central

Cloud-based management platform for preview and remote control; streamlined integration with leading social networks.

LiveU Matrix

It is the next-generation video contribution and distribution platform designed for broadcasters, by broadcasters. Architected from the ground up with usability in mind, Matrix allows broadcasters to quickly and easily get and share content without fussing with complex engineering focused video routing.

LiveU Multipoint

Distribution solutions for sharing feeds easily between multiple destinations.

LiveU Solo

bonded live streaming solution for online market segment

LiveU Xtender

Active external antenna for extra-strong resiliency in extreme scenarios.


A written record of broadcasting. There are typically three logs: A Music Log recording what songs were played. An Engineer's Log detailing technical production settings. A Commercial Log recording which commercials were played during the day.


Either a repeating section of audio or video material, or of cartoon cells. a synonym for "post-sync": dialog replacement (i.e. dubbing) during post-processing to improve audio quality.


Low video bit rate enables quick file upload to the server. This option is recommended for urgent situations when network coverage is low.


Liveu Reliable Transport (LRT_), LiveU's proven bonding technology. This patented technology and transport protocol is optimized for video performance and delivers rock-solid video streams.


Long-Term Evolution (LTE) is a standard for wireless broadband communication for mobile devices and data terminals, based on the GSM/EDGE and UMTS/HSPA technologies.

LU Central

LiveU unified management platform for easy preview and remote control. The LiveU Central management platform allows full control and monitoring of the entire ecosystem and content via any browser-supported computer or tablet, from anywhere around the world.


LiveU bonded software solution for Mac OS.


LiveU bonded transmission for mobile phones and tablets.


LiveU Ultra-small unit for daily newsgathering and online broadcasts.


The LU2000 Bonded Video Transceiver unit is used to receive, reconstruct and playout any bonded video stream sent by LiveU's range of field units. The LU2000 can also be used as a transmission node when configuring LiveU's MultiPoint transmission service.


LiveU most versatile, cost-effective contribution encoder on the market.


LiveU Cost-effective and versatile hybrid rack-mount encoders.


The LU4000 bonded video receiver is used to receive, reconstruct and playout any HEVC/ H.264 video stream of up to 4Kp50/60; supporting sportscasters and innovative news teams wishing to deliver content from the field in the highest video quality available today.


LiveU small resilient unit for professional broadcasts anywhere.


LiveU top performing portable 4K HEVC unit for global newsgathering and live sports coverage.


LiveU Top performing 4K HEVC rack mount encoder for vehicles and fixed locations.


Refers to LU-Central.

Lumen (LM)

A unit of measurement of the amount of brightness that comes from a light source. Lumens define "luminous flux," which is energy within the range of frequencies we perceive as light.


A unit of incident light. It is the illumination on a surface one square foot in area on which a flux of one lumen is uniformly distributed, or the illumination at a surface all points of which are at a distance of one foot from a uniform source of one candela.


Light; brightness. A TV signal is made up of luminance (which carries the black-and-white portion of the image) and chrominance (which carries the hue).

Luminance (Photometric Brightness)

Luminous intensity of any surface in a given direction per unit of projected area of the surface viewed from that direction. The amount of brightness, measured in lumens that is given off by a pixel or area on a screen.

Luminance Signal (See also, Y Signal.)

That portion of the NTSC color television signal which contains the luminance or brightness information.


SI unit of illumination, equal to one lumen per square meter. Lux is a measurement in light intensity.



Macroblock is a processing unit in image and video compression formats based on linear block transforms. A macroblock typically consists of 16_16 samples, and is further subdivided into transform blocks, and may be further subdivided into prediction blocks. Formats which are based on macroblocks include JPEG, where they are called MCU blocks, H.261, MPEG-1 Part 2, H.262/MPEG-2 Part 2, H.263, MPEG-4 Part 2, and H.264/MPEG-4 AVC. In H.265/HEVC, the macroblock as a basic processing unit has been replaced by the coding tree unit.


A trademarked system designed to prevent unauthorized copying of video material.

Magazine concept

In broadcast advertising, the scattered placement of commercials during a program on a participating or spot basis. The opposite is program sponsorship, in which all the advertisements aired during a program are from the same sponsor.

Make local

To insert a station identification in a network program.

Make system

To identify a network, such as the Columbia Broadcasting System.

Man on the street (MOS)

An interviewing technique in which the opinions of the general public are sought.

March on

Opening music titles, or other identification of a radio or TV program.

Master clock

A signal generator that outputs timecode and reference video for genlocking. May output word clock as well.

Match cut

A quick transition, or cut, from one film or TV camera to another, or a smooth transition from one shot to another, with the action appearing to continue seamlessly.

Match dissolve (MD)

A film and TV technique in which a shot fades, or dissolves, into another of similar form or action, perhaps to suggest the passage of time.

Matrix Switcher

A combination or array of electromechanical or electronic switches which route a number of signal sources to one or more destinations.


Abbreviation of megabits per second. One megabit is equal to one million bits or 1,000 kilobits. It is used to measure high data transfer speeds of connections such as Ethernet and cable modems.


The unit that controls and blends audio and/or video signals; the technician who operates the unit (also called a rerecording supervisor or chief recording mixer). In a TV studio or on a film set,the work is done by a floor mixer. A music mixer edits recorded music. The mixing console (generally called simply a mixer) combines premixed tracks (as in the first phase of mixing) with signals from playback machines and other sources, including a mixing panel (a small mixer), based on instructions on a mixing cue sheet.


M-JPEG or MJPEG is a video compression format in which each video frame or interlaced field of a digital video sequence is compressed separately as a JPEG image. Originally developed for multimedia PC applications, M-JPEG is now used by video-capture devices such as digital cameras, IP cameras, and webcams, as well as by non-linear video editing systems. It is natively supported by web browsers such as Safari, Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox and Microsoft Edge.


LiveU's Multi Media Hub (MMH).

Mobile Hotspot

LiveU DataBridge mobile hotspot for general connectivity in the field.

Mobile unit

A vehicle for originating broadcasts from on-the-spot locations, away from the studio, or for carrying equipment for on-location film or tape production; also called a mobile production unit.


To change the frequency, phase, or amplitude of a carrier wave (as in radio transmission). A modulator is a device to change such a wave.


The process, or results of the process, whereby some characteristic of one signal is varied in accordance with another signal. The modulated signal is called the carrier. The carrier may be modulated in three fundamental ways: by varying the amplitude, called amplitude modulation; by varying the frequency, called frequency modulation; by varying the phase, called phase modulation.

Monitor (mon)

A device for checking or regulating performance--for instance, an instrument that receives TV signals by direct wire rather than over the air, as in a TV studio or closed circuit, sometimes without the sound.


Black and white with all shades of gray.

Monochrome Signal

In monochrome television, a signal wave for controlling the brightness values in the picture. In color television, that part of the signal wave which has major control of the brightness values of the picture, whether displayed in color or in monochrome.

Monochrome Transmission

The transmission of a signal wave which represents the brightness values in the picture, but not the color (chrominance) values.

Motion Picture Expert Group (MPEG)

A group of standards for encoding and compressing audiovisual information such as movies, video, and music. MPEG compression is as high as 200:1 for low-motion video of VHS quality, and broadcast quality can be achieved at 6 Mbit/s. Audio is supported at rates from 32 kbit/s to 384 kbit/s for up to two stereo channels.

Move in (MI)

A direction to move a camera or microphone closer to the subject.

Move out (MO)

A direction to move a camera or microphone away from the subject.

Moving off

Movement by a subject away from the camera or microphone; also called fade off.

Moving on

Movement by a subject closer to the camera or microphone; also called fade on.

Moving shot

A filming or videotaping technique in which the camera follows the action; also called follow shot, running shot, or action shot.


Moving Picture Experts Group is a working group of authorities that was formed by ISO and IEC to set standards for audio and video compression and transmission.


Medium bit rate. Provides good video quality with relatively quick file upload.


The use of two or more cameras simultaneously to shoot a scene from more than one angle.


or MP or P2MP. Multipoint or Point to Multi Point are the same name for our Multipoint function. A server receive one stream and distribute to more than one subscriber. LiveU's MultiPoint cloud-based IP video distribution service enables video from the field to be streamed from office to office or from an LU unit to multiple offices. In the MultiPoint service, video can be streamed from one LU2000 server and distributed to one or more other LU2000 servers. This feature requires a licensed LiveU add-on.


In LU-Central it allows live preview of all incoming feeds that can be dragged and dropped to any physical server output around the world or encoded for web streaming. LiveU Video Matrix tab has been renamed to MultiView.



NewTek's Network Device Interface (NDI_) standard for an efficient and cost-effective live production IP workflow solution


A remote pickup, a broadcast not originated by the station transmitting it; pronounced NEE-moe. The acronym is for not emanating from main office.


A system which distributes programming to multiple stations simultaneously, or slightly delayed, for the purpose of extending total broadcast coverage beyond the limits of a single radio or television signal.


Fresh information. Hard news refers to reporting of current events, whereas soft news is more likely to be human-interest features or less current or less urgent news. A news feature is an elaboration on a news report. The news department of a radio or TV station or network, headed by a news director, prepares and/or broadcasts news reports.

News Anchor

are responsible for presenting stories on-camera, usually from a studio location though work can take place in the field. See our broadcast journalism jobs page for more info on the different professions within the field.


An event worthy of reporting, used in television to describe a brief segment, about one minute long, with a few news items.


A straight news program on radio or television with relatively few features.


A newsroom is the central place where journalists-reporters, editors, and producers, along with other staffs-work to gather news to be published in a newspaper and/or an online newspaper or magazine, or broadcast on radio, television, or cable. Some journalism organizations refer to the newsroom as the city room.


The word noise originated in audio practice and refers to random spurts of electrical energy or interference. In some cases, it will produce a "salt-and-pepper" pattern over the televised picture. Heavy noise is sometimes referred to as snow.

Non-air commercial

A commercial not intended for broadcast use, such as for presentations or testing.

Non-Composite Video

A video signal containing all information except sync.


News Room Control Systems


National Television System Committee: An American committee formed to set the line standard and later color standard for broadcasting. Gave its name to the method of color reproduction used in the Americas (except Brazil) and in Japan.



Owned and operated, as with the radio and TV stations in New York and other major cities that are owned and operated by the networks.

O.C. or O/C

On camera; action in front of a TV camera, visible to the audience. In a TV script, it's a direction indicating on which person or scene the camera is focused.


Outside Broadcast. A complete event or programme, or a brief news report, produced and fed back live from the location by an OB vehicle to the broadcaster.

OC or On Cam

Abbreviation for "on camera."

Octopus cable

A grouping of wires or cables with several jacks at one or both ends, used in television to attach equipment with dissimilar jacks.


Office of Communications. The regulator of broadcasting and communications in the United Kingdom.


Off-camera: outside the image field; off-mike: directed away from the microphone; off-screen or off-camera announcer: an announcer heard but not seen; offstage: not visible to the audience.

Off air

A program received via conventional radio or television and not via cable. Off the air refers to the ending of the transmission of a program or the termination of a program.

Off-line edit

A non-computerized, rough assembly of segments with abrupt transitions, followed by a computerized, on-line edit with smooth transitions and other improvements.


A program available for syndication after it has been broadcast on a network.

On Camera Bridge or OC Bridge

The reporter appearing on camera in the middle of the story. Used for transition between voiceovers or soundbites, or when there is no video to talk over.

On the air

A broadcast in progress.

On the fly

In a hurry, extemporaneous. On-the-fly editing of video is editing live or without stopping the tapes.

On-line edit

Computerized assembly of segments, such as a prebuild session to create portions of the final show.

On-scene show

A TV program produced at the site of an earlier murder, accident, or other event, sometimes reenacted.

One up/many down

A television or teleconference format with a single origination site and many receiving sites.


Out Of Vision. A stage instruction noting that a character is not seen when speaking. Also, in continuity announcing, the practice of speaking over a caption rather than appearing on screen.

Open mike

A live microphone.


LiveU On-Premises Solution (OPS) environment allows the customer to install all the Web-control and traffic-control components of LiveU Cloud architecture - inside their premises.


Generically any on-screen graphic. Specifically, a graphic inserted between a program and an advertisement or between individual advertisements.


To produce and transmit a program or other material. In broadcasting, the origination point is called the feed point.


Stands for "Over the Shoulder" and is another common element you see in many news casts.  Its a graphic, often an image with text, that seems to appear over the host's shoulder, hence the name!


Over-the-top content. Term used for the delivery of film and TV content via the internet.

Out of frame

A subject or action that is off-camera and not seen within the frame of the picture.


The last few words--generally four--of a recorded song or a taped report or interview, an extremely important guide to the engineer, producer, director, disk jockey, and newscaster; also called an endcue. The outcue of a commercial or other taped segment is scripted, so that the live announcer knows when to start.


The signal level at the output of an amplifier or other device.

Outputs channels

video output interfaces

Over the Shoulder Graphic or OTS or OC Box

A graphic that appears over the anchor's shoulder.


A TV station that transmits its signal through the air and thus can be received without a cable system.

Over-the-shoulder shot (OSS)

A camera shot made from behind a performer, sometimes including all or part of the head and shoulders, with the camera focused on the spot at which the performer is looking; also called XS, for across shoulder.


Online Video Platform.



Point to Multipoint - one of the services LiveU is offering, it distribute video feed from a single source to serveral destinations.


A radio or TV program or a combination of radio or TV programs or commercial spots offered to a sponsor as a unit, usually at a discount; a taped television report, generally :45 (45 seconds) to 2:30 (2 1/2 minutes)--a short package. A long package is a special report or a report to be edited and broadcast over a period of days (a two-parter, three-parter, four-parter, or five parter).


Phase Alternating Line (PAL) is a colour encoding system for analogue television used in broadcast television systems in most countries broadcasting at 625-line / 50 field (25 frame) per second (576i). Other common colour encoding systems are NTSC and SECAM.


A direction given to the person operating the camera, so that camera eye moves slowly and evenly, vertically or horizontally, in a panorama (the source of the term). A pan shot also is called a blue pan, swish, whipshot, or wiz pan. The process of laterally moving the camera to photograph a wide view is called panning.

Pan and scan

A technique for changing the aspect ratio of the frame of a wide-screen film so that it can be transmitted for TV.

Pan and Tilt

A device upon which a camera can be mounted that allows movement in both the azimuth (pan) and in the vertical plane (tilt).

Pan/Tilt Preset Positioning

Follower pots are installed on pan/tilt unit to allow feedback to the controller and provides information relevant to horizontal and vertical positioning, allowing the controller to quickly adjust to a pre-selected scene automatically.

Patch Panel

A panel where circuits are terminated and facilities provided for interconnecting between circuits by means of jacks and plugs.

Pause control

A device on a machine, such as a tape recorder, that provides for a brief stop or interruption without the machine having to be turned off.

Pay television (pay TV)

Home television programming for which the viewer pays by the program or by the month; also called pay-television, subscription television (STV), or toll-TV. Pay television includes over-the-air transmission (with scrambled signals) and cable transmission (pay cable).


Reception of a scrambled film or sporting event after the payment of a one-off fee for that broadcast.

Picture-in-picture (PIP or P.I.P.)

A feature of television sets in which the viewer can see one videotape or program inside a small window on the screen while watching a videotape or another program on the same screen.


Short for Picture Element. The most basic unit of an image displayed on a computer or video display screen. Pixels are generally arranged in rows and columns; a given combination among the pixels of various brightness and color values forms an image.


Reproduction of sounds, images, or other material from a recording or other source; the control for such reproduction on a recorder or other device. A playback operator handles the playing of prerecorded music, dialogue, or other sound, under the supervision of a production sound mixer A videotape player or other device that reproduces audio and/or video but does not record is called a playback machine.


The official songs that a radio station will play during a given week. The playlist is not usually chosen by the DJ.


The transmission of radio or TV channels from the broadcaster into broadcast networks that deliver content to the audience.


A jack; an electrical device with projecting prongs fitted into an outlet or to connect circuits. A phone plug is a jack commonly used as a microphone connector, often with audio amplifiers.


A podcast or generically netcast, is an episodic series of digital audio or video files which a user can download in order to listen to. It is often available for subscription, so that new episodes are automatically downloaded via web syndication to the user's own local computer, mobile application, or portable media player.


Power over Ethernet or PoE describes any of several standard or ad-hoc systems which pass electric power along with data on twisted pair Ethernet cabling. This allows a single cable to provide both data connection and electric power to devices.

Point of view (POV)

A camera shot seen from or obtained from the position of a performer so that a viewer sees what the performer is seeing.


A self-contained, portable, battery-operated videocassette recorder.

Ports forwarding

port forwarding or port mapping is an application of network address translation (NAT) that redirects a communication request from one address and port number combination to another while the packets are traversing a network gateway, such as a router or firewall. This technique is most commonly used to make services on a host residing on a protected or masqueraded (internal) network available to hosts on the opposite side of the gateway (external network), by remapping the destination IP address and port number of the communication to an internal host.

Postage stamp

The appearance of a black border all around the picture, usually in error, when 4:3 material is converted to 16:9 and then back to 4:3 before broadcast.

Preview Channel

A random channel that is used for LiveU Central video preview purposes only. Video is streamed in low resolution and bit rate from the unit and is not directed to any output (SDI/CDN).

Preview light

The green warning light on a TV camera, which indicates that it is about to transmit.

Preview monitor (PV)

A TV screen used by the director to monitor and select a picture to be used from among shots by various cameras and other sources.

Primary Colors

Three colors wherein no mixture of any two can produce the third. In color television these are the additive primary colors red, blue and green.

Processed Image

Any image that has undergone enhancement, restoration or other operation.


The manager of an event, show, or other work, usually the individual in charge of finance, personnel, and other nonartistic aspects in the development of commercials, plays, movies, and other works. In TV, the producer has more creative responsibilities and control than in the movie industry; it is the associate producer who is in charge of the business elements of production.

Production assistant (P.A.)

A person who aids a producer, director, assistant director, or others involved in film or TV production, such as the person who keeps passersby from waking into a location shoot.

Production associate

A script supervisor in a taped TV production. The job includes timing each scene.

Production Element

A Production Element is a piece of audio that is used in the final audio mix. This may include commercials, music, sound effects, audio effects (e.g. echo) station id or program signatures or announcements.

Progressive Scan

Display scan pattern where each line of the frame is scanned sequentially.


A device to enable speakers and performers to read a script while looking at the audience or at the camera. In video prompters, the prompter copy is typed on ordinary 8 1/2" x 11" sheets of paper that are taped to become continuous rolls, or is typed on rolls of paper called computer video prompters. In professional prompter systems, the prompter copy then is scanned by a vidicon camera and transmitted to one or more prompter/monitor readouts that are mounted on or off a TV camera. The prompter script can be superimposed over the taking lens of the TV camera so that it is visible to the speaker but not transmitted to the home viewer.

Proxy file

Proxy Video is a form of metadata. It consists of highly compressed, very low resolution video (with sound) that mirrors a high resolution original master digital recording.


Public service announcement. A PSA is intended to change the public interest, by raising awareness of an issue, affecting public attitudes, and potentially stimulating action.

Public access

The availability of broadcast facilities for use by community interest groups, a key condition of most cable TV franchises.

Public access channel

A channel reserved by a cable company for community or other public service programs. It is generally available to nonprofit organizations and others.

Public broadcasting

Nonprofit radio and TV stations that are supported by individual subscribers, foundations, government, and other funding sources, including corporations.

Publisher Server

The Publisher receives the video source from any LU device and then shares that video stream. The Publisher is a software-only component that is based on an LU2000 output channel.



A qualitative evaluation of performers, companies, brands, and TV programs, a technique developed by Marketing Evaluations, Inc., of Port Washington, NY.



A 19-inch rack is a standardized frame or enclosure for mounting multiple electronic equipment modules. Each module has a front panel that is 19 inches (48.3 cm) wide. The 19-inch dimension includes the edges, or "ears", that protrude on each side which allow the module to be fastened to the rack frame with screws.

Racks Control

panel where several television cameras are matched together by operator(s) for exposure, colour balance and black level.


Random-access memory (RAM /raem/) is a form of computer data storage that stores data and machine code currently being used. A random-access memory device allows data items to be read or written in almost the same amount of time irrespective of the physical location of data inside the memory.


A single image field or single TV frame, the scanned illuminated area of a TV picture tube.

Raw Image Format

A camera raw image file contains minimally processed data from the image sensor of either a digital camera, image or motion picture film scanner. Raw files are so named because they are not yet processed and therefore are not ready to be printed or edited with a bitmap graphics editor. Normally, the image is processed by a raw converter in a wide-gamut internal colorspace where precise adjustments can be made before conversion to a positive file format such as TIFF or JPEG for storage, printing, or further manipulation, which often encodes the image in a device-dependent colorspace.

Raw Video

Unedited video, just as it was shot. Also called field video.


Of or relating to systems that update information at the same rate as they receive data, enabling them to direct or control a process such as video recording and display. Sometimes referred to as live or real-life timing of events.

Reality programming

Programming that is based on current events, such as a documentary.




To make a copy of video or audio on a video or audio machine. A recording can be from a camera original, a transfer of a camera original, or any other source of picture or sound.

Red field

A video test signal in which the screen appears entirely or mostly in a red color.

Red light

The warning light over a door of a studio indicating that it is in use; a light on a TV camera indication that it is in use.

Release Notes

Release notes are documents that LiveU distribute with software products, sometimes when the product is still in the development or test state (e.g., a beta release). For products that have already been in use, the release note is delivered to the customer when an update is released.


A broadcast from a place other than the station's studio, often transmitted from a remote truck or van; also called remote pickup, pickup, field pickup, outside broadcast, or remo.


A person who gathers news and other journalistic material and writes or broadcasts it--the basic job in journalism. A street reporter works outside the studio and an on-air reporter is shown on camera, either from outside the studio or within it, whereas an anchor is in the studio.


A payment to performers--talent--in broadcast programs or commercials for use beyond the original contract, according to a formula developed by AFTRA, S.A.G., or another union; also called a talent payment, re-use fee, or S.A.G. fee.


The act, process, or capability of distinguishing between two separate but adjacent parts or stimuli, such as elements of detail in an image, or similar colors.

Resolution (horizontal)

The amount of resolvable detail in the horizontal direction in a picture. It is usually expressed as the number of distinct vertical lines, alternately black and white, which can be seen in a distance equal to picture height.

Resolution (vertical)

The amount of resolvable detail in the vertical direction in a picture. It is usually expressed as the number of distinct horizontal lines, alternately black and white, which can theoretically be seen in a picture.

Resolution, Limiting

The details that can be distinguished on the television screen. Vertical resolution refers to the number of horizontal black and white lines that can be resolved in the picture height. Horizontal resolution refers to the black and white lines resolved in a dimension equal to the vertical height and may be limited by the video amplifier bandwidth.

Retained Image

Also called image burn. A change produced in or on the target which remains for a large number of frames after the removal of a previously stationary light image and which yields a spurious electrical signal corresponding to that light image.

Return monitor

A TV screen linked to a TV camera, so that an interviewee or broadcaster in one studio, for example, can see the interviewer or anchor in another studio. Ordinarily in such situations, the interviewee only can hear the interviewer.

RF (Radio Frequency)

Frequency at which coherent electromagnetic radiation of energy is useful for communication purposes. Also, the entire range of such frequencies.


Amplitude variations in the output voltage of a power supply caused by insufficient filtering.


Return Material Authorization. A process where faulty HW parts are replaced with functioning parts


roaming refers to the ability for a cellular customer to automatically send and receive data when travelling outside the geographical coverage area of the home network, by means of using a visited network. For example: should a subscriber travel beyond their cell phone company's transmitter range, their cell phone would automatically hop onto another phone company's service, if available.

Rostrum camera

An adjustable camera commonly used in TV and film animation to shoot artwork or other graphics on a table or other horizontal surface.

Routing room

A room in a TV station with a wall of monitors on which are shown live feeds of remote transmissions for routing to tape decks or for broadcast.


A portable camera, particularly the Sony Portapack.


Real-Time Messaging Protocol, a multimedia streaming and remote procedure call protocol primarily used in Adobe Flash.


The RTP Control Protocol (RTCP) is a sister protocol of the Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP). Its basic functionality and packet structure is defined in RFC 3550. RTCP provides out-of-band statistics and control information for an RTP session. It partners with RTP in the delivery and packaging of multimedia data, but does not transport any media data itself. The primary function of RTCP is to provide feedback on the quality of service (QoS) in media distribution by periodically sending statistics information such as transmitted octet and packet counts, packet loss, packet delay variation, and round-trip delay time to participants in a streaming multimedia session. An application may use this information to control quality of service parameters, perhaps by limiting flow, or using a different codec.


The Real Time Streaming Protocol (RTSP) is a network control protocol designed for use in entertainment and communications systems to control streaming media servers. The protocol is used for establishing and controlling media sessions between end points. Clients of media servers issue VHS-style commands, such as play, record and pause, to facilitate real-time control of the media streaming from the server to a client (Video On Demand) or from a client to the server (Voice Recording).

Running time

The time from the start to the end of a program, segment, or commercial, or the minutes it takes to show a movie.



Store & Forward. LiveU fields units unit can operate in Store & Forward (S&F) mode, which simultaneously stores incoming video while uploading the stored video to the LU2000 server.


A relay station for audio and video transmission, orbiting in space or terrestrial. A satellite station is a radio or TV station used as a relay, broadcasting on the same or a different wavelength as the originating station. Almost all communications satellites are synchronous satellites that hover in the same place in the sky, 22,300 miles above the earth, in stationary orbit. A satellite loop is a sequence from a satellite, such as cloud movement in a TV weather report.

Satellite feed

A transmission from a satellite. HBO and other broadcasters have east and west satellite feeds, three hours apart, so that a program can be shown at the same time in the Eastern and Pacific time zones.

Satellite news (or newsgathering) vehicle (SNF)

A van or other vehicle with equipment for radio and/or TV transmission via satellite to a radio or TV station, usually including tape editing equipment and cellular phone; also called a star truck.


In color, the degree to which a color is diluted with white light or is pure. The vividness of a color, described by such terms as bright, deep, pastel, or pale. Saturation is directly related to the amplitude of the chrominance signal.


Where a permanent mark is burnt into the mask of the TV screen due to prolonged display. Common with sets tuned to one channel for promotional purposes or on ordinary sets from DOGs inserted by broadcasters. Also known as Phosphor burn-in.


The text of a speech, play, film, commercial, or program or simply a schedule or sequential account written by a scriptwriter.


A roll, especially for a document; a function on a video screen in which the lines move up and down for viewing. The process is called scrolling. To scroll up or down is to move the material up or down on the screen.


Standard-definition television (SDTV or SD) is a television system which uses a resolution that is not considered to be either high or enhanced definition. In S&F it is 2.5 to 3mbps.


Serial digital interface (SDI) is a family of digital video interfaces. For example, ITU-R BT.656 and SMPTE 259M define digital video interfaces used for broadcast-grade video. A related standard, known as high-definition serial digital interface (HD-SDI), is standardized in SMPTE 292M; this provides a nominal data rate of 1.485 Gbit/s.


A software development kit (SDK or devkit) is typically a set of software development tools that allows the creation of applications for a certain software package, software framework, hardware platform, computer system, operating system, or similar development platform.

Search engine

A tool for searching information on the Internet by topic. Popular search engines include Yahoo!, Hotbot, infoseek, and Alta Vista.

Set-up box

A container above or adjacent to a television set that controls the cable channels, VCR,and other functions.


Salesforce - LiveU organization uses this customer relationship management system.


A nickname for a video control engineer, who is in charge of video but not audio; sometimes called a shaker.

Shaky cam

Slang for a film or TV segment made by a hand-held (hence, shaky) camera, such as a minicam.

Share (SH)

Share-of-audience: the percentage of the total audience in a specific time period tune to a program or station.

Shared identification

A commercial spot with the name of the station or program superimposed on part of it; also called shared I.D.

Sharing channel

This channel is configured for sharing video via Multipoint. The channel can be any output type (SDI/CDN).


A session at which performances are filmed, especially on location instead of in a studio (to go on a shoot or to a shoot); to film, photograph, or record such a session or any scene; an instruction to start the camera. To overshoot is to shoot too much footage; to undershoot is to shoot too little. A shooter is a photographer.


A piece of cloth that covers microphones, luminaires, or other devices, or serves as scenery, such as foliage; usually called a border.

Shoulder brace

A support for a film or TV camera to hold it on the shoulder of the operator; also called shoulder pad.


Ability to control the integration (of light) time to the sensor to less than 1/60 second; e.g., stop motion of moving traffic.


An electrical impulse representing sound, image, or a message transmitted or received in radar, radio, telegraphy, telephone, television, or other means, via wire or in the atmosphere. Signal area is the territory within which broadcast signals are received. Signal strength is its intensity. A signaler transmits or communicates to a receiver.

Signal-to-Noise Ratio (S/N)

The ratio between useful television signal and disturbing noise or snow.


Screens used for lighting and shading.


When a broadcaster joins another feed typically produced by a third-party supplier outside their facility either live or in a prerecorded format. For example, a press conference or event that is simultaneously joined by various non-related broadcasters.

Simulcast British

term for the broadcast of the same program from multiple transmitters.

Single-camera production

The shooting of a program with one camera (as opposed to using multiple cameras).

Sister station

Radio or TV stations owned by the same company.


A service-level agreement (SLA) is a commitment between LiveU provider and its customers. Particular aspects of the service - quality, availability, responsibilities - are agreed between LiveU and the service user. The most common component of SLA is that the services should be provided to the customer as agreed upon in the contract. In LiveU we have 3 levels: Gold, Silver & Bronze.

Slant track

A videotape on which the signal is recorded diagonally--on a slant--in adjacent strips, as in a helix or spiral; also called helical scan.


A full-screen graphic, shown on screen before the beginning of pre-produced video which identifies the story title, the reporter's name, and the total running time. Only for newsroom use; not meant for broadcast.


The location of a program, announcement, news item, interview, or commercial on a broadcast schedule. Communication satellites are positioned--parked--in orbit in slots two or more degrees apart.

Slow down

A broadcasting and theatrical signal to slow down action or to talk more slowly. It is conveyed by a movement of one's hands, as in pulling taffy.


The Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers (SMPTE) is a global professional association, of engineers, technologists, and executives working in the media and entertainment industry. An internationally recognized standards organization, SMPTE has more than 800 Standards, Recommended Practices, and Engineering Guidelines for broadcast, filmmaking, digital cinema, audio recording, information technology (IT), and medical imaging. In addition to development and publication of technical standards documents, SMPTE publishes the SMPTE Motion Imaging Journal, provides networking opportunities for its members, produces academic conferences and exhibitions, and performs other industry-related functions.

SMPTE (Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers)

A global organization, based in the United States, which, among other things, sets standards for baseband visual communications. This includes film as well as video standards.


Serial number.


A cable that combines several cables, as on a stage or in a studio. A mike snake has several microphone connectors.


Satellite news gathering (SNG) is the use of mobile communications equipment for the purpose of worldwide newscasting. Mobile units are usually vans equipped with advanced, two-way audio and video transmitters and receivers, using dish antennas that can be aimed at geostationary satellites.


Fluctuating spots on a television screen resulting from a weak signal.


sound on tape.


A transient of short duration, comprising part of a pulse, during which the amplitude considerably exceeds the average amplitude of the pulse.


To join together, electronically or mechanically, with glue, heat, or tape. The connection itself is called a splice.


A broadcast advertiser who pays for part or all of a program. The word now is used to indicate any broadcast advertiser, including a sponsor of an individual spot or commercial. Sponsor identification (S.I.) is the announcement at the beginning and/or end of a sponsored program or one with several participating sponsors. A single sponsor may own the program (sponsored programming) and seek sponsor identification with the program or performers on the program. A presenting sponsor is a major advertiser whose name is used as part of the title, such as "(Co.) Presents." A title sponsor has the name of the sponsor as part of the name of the program or event.


In the United States, the practice of a company funding the making of a program in order to entertain an audience and sell a product. In the UK, an advertisement inserted between the end-of-part caption and the breakbumper.


advertising A commercial or commercials run in the middle of or between programs, sold separately from the program (as opposed to sponsors' messages).


A person who looks for something, such as an assistant to an announcer, particularly a sports announcer, who helps to identify the participants in a game.


The part of a program taken up by unplanned material, such as audience laughter and applause. To spread a program or sequence is to stretch it to consume more time.


Slang for a visual inserted in a window or on the screen, generally to the right of a newscaster to identify the subject of a news report. It is more commonly called a topic box.


SSID is short for service set identifier. In layman's terms, an SSID is the name for a Wi-Fi network. People typically encounter an SSID most often when they are using a mobile device to connect to a wireless network. For example, if you take your laptop to the coffee shop and attempt to connect to the local Wi-Fi network, your screen will display a list of SSIDs - this is the names of all the networks that are within range of your mobile device. You'll select the name of the local network you want to connect to and then enter the password (if necessary) to connect.


Single Sign-On. In LiveU Central, the main value of this feature is to allow big organzations to access LUC using their organizational accounts (email/password).

Store & Forward

When this profile is selected, the field unit stores incoming video on internal storage or on an installed micro SD card, while simultaneously uploading the stored video at the highest quality. You can configure Store & Forward quality and other related parameters in the Configuration menu.


Data, in the form of an encoded text, audio and/or video, that is requested by a computer user and delivered via the Internet.


A low-bit-rate encoding format intended for use over networks and the Internet. Streaming files match the encoded bit rate to the connection speed of the user, so the remote viewer can play audio or video with minimal stoppage without first downloading the entire video file.


Preparing a series for reruns and syndication by reducing--stripping--or editing the programs, generally to permit more commercial time.


It is an LU2000 server receiving feeds from another LU2000.

Subscriber Server

The Subscriber represents the receiving side of the shared video stream. The Subscriber is based on a LiveU LU2000 output channel. A Subscriber is an LU2000 server that is located at a broadcasting station.


Text version of a program's dialogue, overlaid on the screen either at broadcast or at reception (often via Teletext or Closed Captioning) for the hearing impaired or for when a speaker is unclear or speaking in a foreign language.

Superimposition (super)

Placing one image on top of another, such as a slide superimposed on the image received from a television camera. A super may be used for a local station insert within a national telecast or the addition of a local retailer identification at the end of or within a commercial for a national sponsor. A superboard or superslide is a board or slide printed in reverse, with white or light-colored lettering on a dark surface, for superimposition on a televised scene, generally for explanation. A super-imp is a composite image created by the superimposition of one camera image over another. The camera command to achieve this is simply "super" or, more often, "super!" Super in sync is a superimposition, such as a slide, synchronized with sound. Lower-third super refers to text superimposed on the lower third of the video screen, the most common place for titles. To lose the super is a direction to fade out the superimposed picture.


Subscription Video on Demand. A video/audio on demand service that uses a subscription model that requires users to pay a monthly fee to access a bundled set of content.




A direction to move or change, as from one camera or video source to another or to change camera angles. The device (video mixer) or person (studio engineer) responsible for camera mixing or switching is called a switch or switcher. Switching is the selection process among the various audio and video sources in a production.


A contraction of synchronous or synchronize.

Sync Generator

A device for generating a synchronizing signal.

Sync Level

The level of the peaks of a synchronizing signal.


To keep two sequences playing at the same rate (in sync). A slide show or a series of video clips can be synced to the beat on an audio track. A talking-head video needs to maintain lip-sync, so that the audio matches the mouth movements of the speaker.


Maintaining two or more scanning processes in phase.



A high-speed Internet connection, allowing transfer rates of 1.5 Mbps (megabytes per second).


Even faster than T1, a T-3 connection transfers information over the Internet at a rate of 45 megabytes per second.

Talk set

Conversation between recordings.


A brief sequence at the end of a live remote news report in which the anchor asks one or more questions of the reporter.

Talking head

A person shown merely speaking, presented in a dull or unimaginative way.

Tally light

A red light on an active camera; a cue light indicating that the camera is in use.


Abbreviation of Transmission Control Protocol. TCP is one of the main protocols in TCP/IP networks. Whereas the IP protocol deals only with packets, TCP enables two hosts to establish a connection and exchange streams of data. TCP guarantees delivery of data and also guarantees that packets will be delivered in the same order in which they were sent.


A trademarked visual prompting device for speakers and television performers that reproduces the current portion of the script in enlarged letters, originally made by a New York-based company no longer in business. Its device, attached to the TV camera so that performers can look into the camera, was called a teleprompter, which has become a generic term for a teleprompter, also called a teleprompt.


Teleprompting, it's basically like using 'electronic cue-cards'. It allows anyone you're recording to read their script, while still looking directly into the camera lens. The speech scrolls on a horizontal screen and is reflected onto high-quality glass that the camera shoots through.

Television black

Not pitch black, with about 3-percent reflectance.

Television white

Not pure white, having about 60-percent reflectance (about 60 percent of light is reflected from the TV screen). The TV camera cannot reproduce pure white or pure black.

Terrestrial feed

Radio, TV, or other transmission via land lines such as telephone, or direct (without lines); different from satellite feed.

Test Pattern

A chart especially prepared for checking overall performance of a television system. It contains various combinations of lines and geometric shapes. The camera is focused on the chart, and the pattern is viewed at the monitor for fidelity.


In general terms, throughput is the maximum rate of production or the maximum rate at which something can be processed.

Tight on

A direction to the camera crew to zoom in on a subject so that they fill the shot (e.g. "Tight on anchor/guest.")

Tight two shot

A direction to a TV camera operator for close-up of the heads of two people.


The appearance of large non-congruent blocks on a video display when a digitally generated broadcast (i.e., image) was received by the monitor in an incomplete form. Tiling also occurs when the video signal has degraded or been partially interrupted as it was received by the monitor.


A direction to move a camera up or down; a vertical pan.

Time base correction (TBC)

A process of filling out, or correcting, the electronic lines that make up a video image; minimizes or eliminates jiggling of the picture.

Time code

A digitally encoded signal that is recorded on videotape in the format of house:minutes:seconds:frames.

Time Lapse Video Recording

The process by which images are recorded at less than the standard rate of frames per second (NTSC - 29.97; PAL - 25.00) thus extending the period of time that can be covered by the storage medium.

Time signal

An announcement of the time, as on a broadcast, indicated with a beep, sometimes accompanied by a commercial announcement; also called a time check. A producer or other person in radio or TV program production gives a time signal to indicate the time remaining in a program or program segment by displaying a card with the number of minutes or raising the appropriate number of fingers.

Time slot

A period in a schedule, as a program scheduled 7:30 to 8 p.m. Or an interview in the 8:05 to 8:15 portion of a program.


The recording of the date and time on the edge of a videotape as it is being shot, to assist in editing and record keeping.

Tones and bars

A test pattern that precedes a TV program, consisting of sound tones and color bars or stripes.


When an anchor or reporter turns over a portion of the show to another anchor or reporter.


A transceiver is a device comprising both a transmitter and a receiver that are combined and share common circuitry or a single housing. When no circuitry is common between transmit and receive functions, the device is a transmitter-receiver.


To convert from one compression format to another (that is, from DV video from a camcorder to MPEG-2 for DVD). Preferably done intelligently to minimize loss of quality from repeated compression, and not requiring fully decompressing the input and then recompressing to the output.


Signals which exist for a brief period of time prior to the attainment of a steady-state condition. These may include overshoots, damped sinusoidal waves, etc.


A station that rebroadcasts signals of other stations and does not originate its own programming. There are about 7000 translators in the United States, including FM, VHF, and UHF.


The actual sending or beaming of the audio/video portion of the program from point to point.


A receiver that transmits signals when activated by a specific signal. For example, a satellite transponder picks up signals from the earth, translates them into a new frequency, amplifies them, and transmits them back to earth. The word originates from transmitter and responder.

TV black

In television, a very dark color but not pure, absolute black.

TV white

An off-white color that is not pure white and that reflects light shone on it. TV white has a reflective value of about 60 percent.


Television Receive-Only earth station.


Distortion of a TV picture resembling twinkling stars, also called edge beat.


Most often an interview guest and the back of the reporter's head. Also used to refer to any shot including two people; two anchors at a single news desk, for instance.

Tying in

A procedure for a local station to pick up or to join a network program after it has started.



An external device that is being used to provide point to point connectivity from a field unit to an Xtender.


Ubuntu is a free and open-source Linux distribution based on Debian. Ubuntu is a popular operating system for cloud computing. LiveU started tusing it from version 7.0.


Abbreviated UDP, a connectionless protocol that, like TCP, runs on top of IP networks. Unlike TCP/IP, UDP/IP provides very few error recovery services, offering instead a direct way to send and receive datagrams over an IP network. It's used primarily for broadcasting messages over a network.

Ultrahigh frequency (UHF)

Limited-range wave bands for television channels (14 to 82) that transmit from 470 to 890 megahertz (mhz), with lower power and over a smaller area than low-band (channels 2 to 6) or high-band (7 to 13) very high frequency (VHF) stations.


Typically used to increase scan lines on SD video so content can be viewed or processed in a higher resolution environment. Quality is not improved, but scan lines are added to permit a suitable viewing experience in a higher resolution environment.


The portion from the ground source up to the satellite. The balance of the circuit is the downlink.

Usage Timeframe

A generalized use class aspect that specifies the timeframe in which a video be used. As in, will the video be used in real-time or will it be recorded? See also, the Usage Timeframe topic for video quality requirements considerations.

Use Case

In software and systems engineering, a use case is a description of a system's behavior in response to external stimuli. This technique is used to develop functional requirements by specifying the system's behavior through scenarios. This concept can be expanded to apply to video systems that are used to perform specific tasks. A use case is a combination of the scene being observed and the task being performed by a viewer (or analyst). See also, the Use Cases topic for more information.

Use Class

A use class shares certain important aspects of specific use cases that are common to other use cases, allowing you to make video quality requirements generalizations between them. For example, all use cases have an analyst and a scene under observation. To identify a use class, the next step is to derive generalized aspects from the analyst's intended use of the video (Use Characteristics - usage timeframe, discrimination level) and what is in the scene under observation (Scene Content - target size, motion, lighting level). See also, the Generalized Use Class Aspects topic for more information.



A computerized device in a television set that automatically blocks receipt of specific programs that are coded to indicate that they contain violence. The V-chip is activated at the option of the viewer.

Variable Bit Rate (VBR)

A compression scheme in which each unit of input material can be compressed to different sizes. For MPEG-2 video, for example, this means that "easier" sequences (that is, with no motion) can compress to very small sizes, whereas "hard" sequences (with lots of motion and scene cuts) can compress to much larger sizes. VBR compression can take better advantage of the overall available bandwidth of a video transmission or DVD player by allocating the available bits intelligently to the difficult parts of a sequence.


Vertical blanking interval. The blank area out of sight at the top and bottom of a television picture that allows the raster gun to reset. The space created is often used for Teletext and other services.


An oscilloscope used in a video to display color values and phase relationship.

Vertical blanking interval

A portion of a TV signal between waves. Coded closed captioning for hearing-impaired viewers and teletext are transmitted in this interval for viewing with a decoder attached to the TV set.

Vertical interval signal

[television] A signal inserted outside the regular picture area and transmitted in the vertical interval period between frames. Vertical interval reference signals (VIRS) provide reference data, such as identification of the time and origin of the program; vertical interval test signals (VITS) provide transmission and other monitoring checks.


Video editing terminal.


Very high frequency - Frequencies from 30 MHz (wavelength 10 m) to 300 MHz (wavelength 1 m), used for radio and television broadcasting.


The electronic representation of a sequence of images, depicting either stationary or moving scenes. It may include audio.

Video assist

A system consisting of a videotape camera, recorder, and playback unit attached to a film camera to permit viewing on a monitor during shooting and subsequent viewing on videotape (called instant dailies); also called video playback or video tap.

Video editing

A process of changing a TV image, such as is done with computer graphics or other techniques in which a picture is altered or combined with another picture or artwork; also called image processing or video manipulation.

Video Quality (Public Safety)

The ability of the public safety agency to use the required video to perform the purpose intended. For example, if the purpose of the video is to capture license plates on vehicles in a range of outdoor conditions, video quality is measured in the ability of the video outputs to provide that specific information across a range of environmental conditions.

Video Return Server

LiveU's Video Return server enables field crews to see what's currently on-air and receive teleprompting information during live sessions Video Return enables field crews to get constant live feeds from the studio, ensuring professionally-produced and smoothly-run live broadcasts at a fraction of the cost of traditional transmission methods, such as satellite and fiber.

Video Signal (Non-Composite)

The picture signal. A signal containing visual information and horizontal and vertical blanking but not sync. (See also, Composite Video Signal.)

Video wall

An array of television monitors, as at an exhibition.


A single picture taken from a videotape or off a TV screen.


A jack through which a video signal is fed into a video encoder or other receptacle; also called line-in.


A jack from which a video signal is fed out of a video decorder ; also called line- out.

Virtual Group

Streaming to a Virtual Group enables LiveU Central operators to preview the channel and then to control the destination to which the stream is ultimately directed and sent live. A LiveU Central operator can decide to stream to a physical SDI port on the LU2000 server or to a Content Delivery Network (CDN). When you select a Virtual Group, the video is initially streamed as a preview (virtual) channel to LiveU Central. In Preview mode, the video is transmitted as a light stream (at a low bandwidth and with a low resolution and frame rate).


video on demand.


Virtual reality, a computer technology that simulates an environment with which a user may interact.


video tape recorder. A method of recording television pictures by electromagnetic pulses on a sensitised plastic strip.


Warning light

A red light on a TV camera indicating that it is on and in use.


A semi-transparent graphic, usually the station's logo, placed in one corner of the broadcast feed.

Wave-form monitor (WFM)

An oscilloscope used to test and adjust audio or video signals. In television, it is a small oscilloscope tube with a wavy line display that traces the variations of the video signal.


A transmission of an event, either live or recorded, over the Internet. A webcast extends the audience from potential TV and radio news consumers to a targeted audience at their pcs (employees, investors, analysts, experts, etc.)

White clipping

A video control circuit that regulates, or clips, the top level, or white level, of the picture signal so that it does not appear on the transmitted picture.


The process of shooting a white card with a video camera and pressing a button (labeled White Balance) to activate the camera circuit that adjusts the internal setting of the blacklevel, white level, and the three colors (red, green, and blue) to the white card.


A wireless LAN (WLAN) is a wireless computer network that links two or more devices using wireless communication to form a local area network (LAN) within a limited area such as a home, school, computer laboratory, campus, office building etc. This gives users the ability to move around within the area and yet still be connected to the network. Through a gateway, a WLAN can also provide a connection to the wider Internet.



LiveU's external antanna for extra-strong resiliency in extreme scenarios.



Luminance in many color models used for television broadcast, such as YIQ and YUV.

Y Signal

A signal transmitted in color television containing brightness information. This signal produces a black-and-white picture on a standard monochrome receiver. In a color picture it supplies fine detail and brightness information (see also,luminance signal).


The luminance signal (Y) and the two chrominance signals (U and V). In YUV encoding



To enlarge or reduce, on a continuously variable basis, the size of a televised image primarily by varying lens focal length.

Zoom Lens

An optical system of continuously variable focal length, the focal plane remaining in a fixed position.